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July 1933 0 American Cinematographer
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BOARD OF GOVERNORS
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Seitz, Emery Huse, Dr. L. M. Dieterich
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American Cinematographer • July 1933
Editor's Note: This is the first in a series of articles by
Emery Huse, A.S.C., on Sensitometric Control. This series
will comprise four installments. In the August issue Mr.
Huse will deal with contrast as distinguished from gamma
and also give general methods of negative development.)
T IS the purpose of this paper to present a resume of the
current methods involved in the application of sensi-
tometry to motion picture film processing today in the
major laboratories in Hollywood,, California. During the past
decade very rapid progress has been made in the general
technique of the handling of motion picture film of all kinds
in a variety of processes. This paper, however, will discuss
only that phase of the handling which deals with the actual
chemical development processes.
Ten years ago the development of motion picture film in
Hollywood was entirely a manual operation being accom-
plished with the aid of the well-known rack and tank sys-
tem. During the last ten years much work has been done
and many papers written on the general subject of machine
development of motion picture film, with the result that at
the present time, with the exception of one or two smaller
laboratories, all film developed in Hollywood is handled by
machines. With machine development one can feel assured
that the actual conditions under which film is developed
are much more stable than those conditions which existed
under the now almost obsolete rack and tank methods. In
discussing sensitometric control in the motion picture lab-
oratories in Hollywood, therefore, it must be remembered
that such laboratories as Paramount, Metro, Fox, Warners,
Consolidated, Horsley, etc., use developing machines oper-
ated at speeds in the neighborhood of 90 feet per minute.
Prior to the actual use of the classical Hurter and Drif-
field method of sensitometry in motion picture practice,
certain less accurate control methods were in use. How-
ever, until recently no precise sensitometric control instru-
ments were available. All control was accomplished by visual
judgment of the operator in actual charge of the develop-
ment processes. By the rack and tank method of development
densities were matched and picture quality was obtained
solely as a result of visual comparison. Naturally a procedure
of control which is dependent upon personal judgment lent
for no standardization of results. It was possible to establish
a procedure such as specifying a certain number of shakes
to the rack at certain stated intervals of time during de-
velopment, but the developing solutions were not taken care
of from the replenisher standpoint with anywhere near the
precision which now takes place with machine development
and the accompanying circulating and conditioning systems.
Hurter and Driffield Sensitometry
The first thing to be considered in discussing the Hurter
and Driffield system of sensitometry is the instrument with
which a series of exposures can be impressed upon a piece
of film under known conditions of light quality, light in-
tensity, and exposure time. It can be readily seen that an
ordinary picture does not allow for a complete technical
analysis. It is not possible to determine the absolute bright-
nesses which cause each of the different densities in the
negative and although the time of exposure given in a cam-
era is fairly well established it is still impossible to obtain
a correct technical estimate of the total value of exposure
as expressed by the simple equation E = It. In a mechani-
cal instrument designed for impressing uniform exposures
one is not confronted with a series of densities which are
distributed heterogeneously throughout the film. With the
aid of a properly designed instrument it is possible to obtain
a series of uniformly exposed areas differing as a result of
a known ratio of exposures. A strip of film containing a
series of uniform areas of density gives a means by which
certain technical analyses may be made of both the film and
the developer. The first problem, therefore, to be consid-
ered in setting up a sensitometric control is the establish-
ment of this exposure instrument, which is called a sensi-
tometer, and it must be able to make exposures which can
be definitely repeated. From the standpoint of a sensi-
tometer the Eastman Kodak Company built and placed on
the market for general sale about two years ago an instru-
ment which is called the Eastman Type Mb sensitometer.
This instrument operates on the time scale principle and
makes use of precisely calibrated tungsten lamps as the
light source. This instrument has been adequately de-
scribed by L. A. Jones ( 1 ) who designed and supervised the
building of the instrument.
The Eastman Type lib sensitometer was designed espe-
cially to meet the need of the modern motion picture film
laboratory. It provides a precise and rapid means of making
routine sensitometric tests for the control of development
processes. Figure 1 shows a partial vertical section through
the optical axis of the sensitometer. This instrument im-
July 1933 0 American Cinematographer
* Emery Huse, A. S. C.
presses on the film under test an accurately predetermined
scale of exposures which may be maintained constant from
test to test over long periods of time. The exposure scale
consists of 21 steps produced by exposures equal in illumina-
tion and ranging from 1 to 1024 in relative times, each
exposure being 1.414 (square root of 2) times as long as
the next shorter. This constant factorial difference between
steps permits the density readings to be spaced at equal in-
tervals along the log exposure axis in constructing an H and
D (density-log E) curve. Figure 2 shows an actual sensi-
tometric record made with this instrument.
Tables 1 and 2 herewith submitted show the actual setup
of the instrument for the exposure of positive and negative
Lamp . 72 watt, 6 volt, locomotive headlight, calibrated
Filter 78 B correcting to 3000°K.
Intensity .... 27 meter-candles
t max 4.99 seconds at 50 cycles
log E max. 2.13
Lamp . . 36 watt, 6 volt, locomotive headlight, calibrated
Filter 79 correcting to 5400°K.
Intensity 75 meter-candles
t max 4.99 seconds at 50 cycles.
log E max ... 0.57
It is with this instrument that practically all sensitometric
control in the processing of motion picture film in Hollywood
is accomplished. At the time of this writing there are nine
of these instruments in use there. It is interesting to note
at this point that at the Annual Awards Banquet of the
Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences in November,
1932, this instrument was given official recognition by being
awarded an honorable mention by the committee on awards
on Scientific and Technical Achievements.
After the development of the sensitometric strip made
on the Type lib sensitometer it is necessary, in order to
attain the desired technical results, to find a means of
measuring the densities of the various deposits. A photo-
metric instrument of one type or another is used for this
work. Such an instrument in common use in most of the
''West Coast Manager, Motion Picture Film Division, Eastman Ko-
laboratories in Hollywood is the Eastman densitometer which
has been described by Capstaff and Purdy (2). At the
present time there are approximately 25 of these instruments
in use in Hollywood, both in laboratories and in sound de-
partments. Some of these departments make use of polari-
zation photometers such as those made by Schmidt and
Haensch or by the Bausch and Lomb Optical Company.
The Eastman densitometer, which is shown in Figure 3, is
designed to fulfil several conditions, namely: the ability to
read densities from 0.00 to 3.00; to measure very small
areas ( V 2 sq. mm.) utilizing the same source of light for the
illumination of the density to be measured and furnishing
the light for the comparison beam; calibrated to read direct
diffused density; and designed to be portable, compact and
inexpensive. It has been shown in actual practice that this
instrument fulfils these requirements.
The West Coast Laboratory of the Eastman Kodak Com-
pany maintains a continual service in checking the densi-
tometers in the field for their physical condition as well as
their photometric ability, calibrations being made against
standard densities originally calibrated in the Research
Laboratories in Rochester.
Inasmuch as the actual conditions of exposure of the
sensitometric strip are known, i.e., the time of exposure and
the intensity and quality of the exposing radiation, it is
possible with the values of density available to construct the
characteristic density-log E curve. As the exposure in-
creases so the density increases until upon completion of the
plotting of the curve a graph, such as is shown in Figure 4,
is obtained. There are three distinct portions to this curve,
namely: the toe, which is that portion indicated between
A and B; the straight line, between B and C; and the
shoulder, between C and D. It is quite well known that
these three portions of the characteristic curve are referred
to respectively as the regions of under exposure, correct ex-
posure, and over exposure. It is of value, therefore, in the
application of sensitometry to motion picture film processing
to know the characteristic curve resulting from the develop-
ment of sensitometric exposures in the negative, positive,
Continued on next page
American Cinematographer 9 July 1933
Continued from preceding page
and sound track developing
solutions. Quite naturally the
negative developer is studied in
terms of exposures made on
negative film, the positive de-
veloper in terms of exposures
made on positive film, etc.
There are in the Hurter and
Driffield system of sensitometry
several constants regarding
which data is desired. From
the standpoint of motion pic-
ture control, by far the most
important characteristic is the
slope of the straight line portion
of the curve, which is com-
monly referred to as “gamma.”
Gamma is defined as the tan-
gent of the angle formed by the
straight line portion of the H
and D curve and the log E axis,
and is an indication of the de-
gree of development. It is, of
course, a constant of the emul-
sion itself but for a given emul-
sion developed in a given solu-
tion gamma is a numerical spe-
cification of the degree of de-
velopment in that solution. It
is important, furthermore, to
know that as development time
increases gamma increases,
meaning that the straight line
portion of the curve forms in-
creasingly greater angles with
the log E axis as development
time progresses. This is an ex-
tremely important fact.
Probably the best way to de-
termine for a given emulsion the
reaction which a developing so-
r- lution will give is by study of
2 the rate at which gamma builds
— * up with development time. Fig-
ure 5 shows a series of H and
D curves, all of which had iden-
tical exposures in an Eastman
Fig. 2 Type lib sensitometer, but
each strip of which received a different time of develop-
ment under a constant developing condition. After the
determination of gamma for each of these curves, these
values are plotted as ordinates against the time of develop-
ment as the abscissa. A new curve is thus obtained which
definitely shows the relationship existing between gamma
and development time and this curve is referred to as
the time gamma curve. From the sensitometric standpoint
this curve tells a great deal about the condition, or rather the
reaction, of that developer to that particular type of film.
It is now very easy to see that regardless of whether nega-
tive or positive film is to be developed, the determination
of a time-gamma curve for negative film in the negative
solution and for positive film in the positive solution is very
essential. In actual practice complete series of H and D
curves for a variety of development times are not obtained
because with practice it is readily determined what the
probable range of development times will be and it is there-
fore only necessary to construct time-gamma curves over the
range which is within that used practically. There are several
other sensitometric constants which while important, both
from a technical and practical standpoint, do not necessarily
occupy the same important niche as that filled by gamma.
Reference is made to the constants speed, latitude, and fog.
Speed as a sensitometric constant has been subjected to
many interpretations. From the standpoint of the practical
photographer, speed and density mean much the same thing
for the reason that if two samples of film are exposed
simultaneously to the same quantity and quality of light and
then developed for the same time, that sample showing the
greatest density is considered the fastest. From the stand-
point of the Hurter and Driffield method of sensitometery,
speed has a little different meaning and it is arbitrarily de-
fined as the reciprocal of the inertia multiplied by a con-
S - — x k
The inertia “i” is defined as the exposure value at the
point where on the log E the straight line portion of the H
and D curve extended cuts that axis. The value of the
constant “k” should be so chosen that it is sufficiently large
so that values of speed for various commercial emulsions
are of convenient magnitude for practical use. Speed de-
terminations made by this method on the Eastman Type lb
sensitometer make use of the value 10 as the constant k.
Speeds as thus determined are not of any particular value to
the practical laboratory man. This method of speed de-
termination has been discussed because it is technically im-
portant and furthermore it was desirable to acquaint the
reader with the fact that this constant exists.
Latitude is a constant which has to do with the range of
brightnesses which can be adequately rendered by a photo-
graphic emulsion. The numerical specification of latitude
Continued on Page 1 1 1
July 1933 9 American Cinematographer 89
As told by
Harry Perry, A.S.C.
to Karl Hale
Editor’s Note: Harry Perry has contributed photography to prac-
tically every famous air epic that has reached the screen. Wings,
Hell's Angels and many others have given the audiences of the
world photography contributed by him.)
V IBRATION is the bugaboo of the cameraman in the
air. It has taught us to anchor our equipment solidly.
Temporary fastening will not do.
We not only have vibration to contend with, but also the
back wash of the propeller when we are not shooting from
a cabin job. But, still, we have more respect for vibration
than any other factor in photographing from the air.
We not only watch our contrivances on the camera itself,
but always keep a weather eye open to the fastening of the
camera. They’ll work loose sometimes for some unknown
reason. An incident like this happened to me. I observed
that the camera was listing . . . not much, but still listing,
and there was a more noticeable vibration. I immediately
looked to the fastening and found that one of the bolts
was working loose. The assistant cameraman had to take
the place of the bolt for the rest of the trip. He had to
hang on with all of his strength to keep that camera solid.
The wind pressure was tremendous; we were also hitting
'umpy air pockets.
One time we hit an air pocket that sent me to the full
length of my six-foot safety belt . . . that airplane dropped
right out from under me, but fortunately my camera kept
on grinding. My return to the cockpit could hardly be
called graceful . . . but.it certainly was in accordance with
the best laws of gravity. I mention this to show the great
importance of secure anchoring of the camera at all times.
And another vital thing is to be sure that all detachable
parts are wired or taped securely. Once I had set the au-
tomatic camera on the running gear of the plane, and so
arranged the control that the pilot could push the starting
button. When he came back to the field he had several
hundred feet of negative trailing back of his plane. The
powerful back-wash from the propeller and the vibration
had worked the magazine cover off; also succeeded in loos-
ening the take-up reel, with the obvious result, a trail of
ribbon flying back of the plane that might have been a
fine piece of decoration for a honeymooner’s auto.
It is these experiences that have taught the cinematog-
raphers of the air some of the technical things they are up
against. The shooting of pictures in most instances is haz-
ardous enough without attempting to take chances with
equipment . . . those things must be perfect . . . they must
be so that they can be operated with the least difficulty at
all times. Some of us have developed our own filter adapt-
ers . . . they are important tools up in the air. The sky
changes, conditions change and we have to make rapid
changes of filters as we are flying. We cannot start out
with a certain filter and feel it is going to meet all require-
ments. The blueness of the sky is a thing that we must
read at a glance. If it is the soft blue that comes out well,
of course we use the lighter filter . . . possibly a K or a C
or Aero Filter . . . but if it is a washed out or a steely blue
we must go into the heavier reds . . . and those conditions
are changing rapidly ... in fact, so rapidly sometimes that
it is absolutely essential that we can make a rapid change of
filters before the scene leaves us at the high rate of speed
the plane usually travels.
The air photographer has learned many things that the
man working on the ground does not have to contend with.
We must be sure that the exhaust of the motor is not
sweeping across our lens, or it will give us a fog effect.
Flies have been known to get into the lens hood and spoil a
shot. I have known this to happen twice in succession.
Once in the hood the high wind pressure will not let them
I have found vibration so bad when shooting colored pic-
tures, where more than one piece of film is in the aperture
at one time, as to work this film away from registered posi-
tion and lose the loop entirely, buckling the film.
The aerial cinematographer prefers the cabin planes for
shooting. It eliminates that terrible wind blast from the
propeller. He prefers to have the door taken off, when the
plane owner will permit. This gives more freedom of action.
But when using an open plane he must take what the pro-
peller delivers to him. To overcome this, a windshield was
built for the cinematographer on one occasion, only to find
that it interfered with the force of the propeller wind back
to the tail of the ship and that the ship could not be steered,
as it was not getting sufficient wind to affect the rudder.
However, a very important thing is to have a pilot who
understands pictures . . . one who can keep the objective in
sight . . . who can interpret angles.
Harry Perry, A.3.C., ready for a flight among the
clouds to photograph screen thrills.
American Cinematographer 0 July 1933
For the Studio
William Stull, A. S.C.
Member of Research Committee,
American Society of Cinematographers
F OLLOWING in the footsteps of the well-known ‘Pho-
toflood” bulbs announced a few months ago for non-
professional photographic use, the General Electric
Company has brought forth a similar type of globe in larger
units for studio use, known as the ‘‘Super-Photoflood.” Al-
though produced especially to meet the requirements of
modern natural-color cinematography, the new lamps should
be at least equally useful in the more common field of
black-and-white camera work, since they offer a more in-
tense, whiter light with a very marked reduction of infra-
red (heat) radiation.
The principle of the photoflood is probably too well
known to require additional exposition here, especially since
many cinematographers already employ the smaller photo-
floods in ‘‘Baby Spots” and in “practical” set light-fixtures.
Suffice it to say that they are high-efficiency bulbs, designed
to operate with great intensity on currents considerably in
excess of their rated voltage, giving an intense white light.
It is well known that if the voltage applied to a lamp is
increased, the light-output increases at a much faster rate
than either voltage or wattage, while the amount of blue-
violet radiation increases faster than does the red-orange.
A 10% increase in voltage, for instance, will give a 16%
increase in wattage, but a 40% increase in light output.
In the case of the small photoflood lamp, rated at 65 volts
but normally operated at from 110-115 volts, an 80% in-
crease in volts increases the wattage two and one-half
times, but raises the light volume five and one-half times.
The new Super-photofloods, when compared to standard
types now in general use in the studios, are found to give
an increase of 270% in the violet region (4000-4500 Ang-
strom) but only 55% increase in the red (6300-7000
Angstrom). Based on an equal red radiation for the two
lamps, the increase in the violet is 140%. The overall
increase in intensity is approximately 100%. Used in a
standard studio unit — the Mole-Richardson “Rifle” type,
which concentrates 59% of the light within a 60-degree
angle — we find that whereas a standard 1 500-watt PS-52
type bulb directs 17,200 lumens in the sixty-degree useful
angle, the new 2000-watt PS-52 (Super-Photoflood I gives
34,400 lumens in the same angle, an increase of exactly
There is, however, the familiar drawback to all photo-
flood lamps — shorter life. The smaller photofloods, as is
well known, have an average life of between two and three
hours at full intensity. This life is materially increased in
many installations, however, by the use of shunt circuits
which permit the operator to burn the lamp at a reduced
voltage while lining up, and then to switch to full voltage
and intensity for actual photographing. The same expedient
is recommended for conserving the larger photofloods, which
normally have a life of from 1 5 to 1 8 hours at full intensity.
It is entirely feasible to reduce the line voltage to approxi-
mately 90 volts, by means of either a field control at the
generator, or by the use of grids outside of the set, keeping
this voltage while preparing, and operating the lamps at
full voltage only when actually shooting. With all of the
lamps operating at a uniformly-reduced voltage during the
preparatory work, lighting balances, contrasts, shadows, etc.,
should not be altered when the lamps are brought up to full
voltage, while the life of the bulbs would be materially *
increased. As these bulbs darken quickly, a cleaning-pow-
der is provided in the globes, and they should be cleaned
after every five or six hours of full-intensity operation.
These new lamps will take care of the floor-lighting
units; but how about the larger units used overhead? It
has been found unnecessary to develop new bulbs for these,
since the already available 5 kw. and 10 kw. types are
already designed for extreme efficiency. It is necessary only
to use the bulbs of this size rated for 105 volts on 120-
volt circuits to get the desired effect.
Of course, when some new development such as this is
announced, the inevitable question in the minds of its pro-
spective users is, “Very nice — but what will it actually do?”
To answer this, we must examine the relationship between
existing lamps and the SuperSensitive film now in general
use. Essentially — despite all of the recent progress in pan-
chromatization — we have a film, highly sensitive at the
blue-violet end of the spectrum, and somewhat less sensitive
toward the red-orange end. With normal Mazda lamps,
we have a light having its greatest radiation in the orange-
red and beyond, but tapering down toward the blue-violet
end of the spectrum — a very fortuitous combination. More
than a few of the outstanding masters of the camera, how-
ever, have found that the best results are obtained by using
a very light bluish silk over their lights, passing the blue-
violet and green components freely, but slightly curtailing
the yellow, orange and red frequencies. The photoflood
bulb, though not making so great a correction, follows this
lead to a certain degree, as its radiation is markedly in-
creased in the blue-violet region, and decreased in the
orange-red. It is, in fact, a much closer approximation
of sunlight than has hitherto been achieved in clear-glass
Mazda bulbs. The Super-photoflood should, therefore, give
a decidedly marked improvement in quality — in the pleas-
ing rendition of tone and texture. This has already been
acknowledged by many cinematographers in their practice
of using the smaller photofloods in baby spots and practical
set lighting-fixtures. Continued on Page 114
July 1933 9 American Cinematographer
Use of Filte rs
Hartley H arrison
Editor’s Note: This is the second in the series of articles on Fil-
ters by Hartley Harrison, well-known manufacturer of color and
N THE previous article we discussed three rules of fil-
ters, namely: That a colored filter is only selective when
there is color for it to select from; that a colored filter
only changes the exposure of objects that are of a different
color than that of the filter, and that a color filter does not
change the exposure of objects which are the same color
as the filter.
Keeping the fact in mind that all panchromatic film is
more blue sensitive than it is red sensitive, and that it is
more red sensitive than it is green sensitive, let’s apply
these filter rules to special effect use.
One of the most common special effect uses of filters is
making an ordinary day scene look like a night scene, so
we will draw our word picture around that type of appli-
In making this type of scene we have a choice of two
kinds of effects, a contrasty, under-exposed moonlight scene
and a flat under-exposed night scene, with the objects just
visible and no detail even in the highlights. Of the two the
last one is probably the most difficult, as the greatest con-
trast is always obtained with an under-exposure, and this
contrast must be reduced in the flat night scenes. Of course,
the subject and conditions determine the type of filter to
use in throwing the scene out of the balance that is seen
visually, so we will of necessity explain the conditions and
subjects and apply various filters to them.
Let’s take the making of flat night scenes for our illus-
tration, and suppose we have a blue sky with large white
clouds, and the sun reflected from off of a white house
with light gray sidewalks, what shrubbery there is being
gray with dust and fairly high surface reflection. Our blue
sky would then have the least amount of light and we
would want to reduce the exposure of the house, etc., to
that of the sky. We would, therefore, pick a filter that
would not change the exposure of the sky, and according
to our third rule, a blue filter would not change the ex-
posure of blue light, therefore we would use a blue filter.
Now our second rule says that a filter will change the ex-
posure of objects that are not of the same color as that of
the filter, the white house being composed of reflecting
green and red as well as blue, the blue filter would hold
back the exposure of practically everything except the blue
sky and tend to reduce all of the scene to a common gray
relation on the film, which is just the thing we are striving
for. The bluer the sky is, the greater the difference we
can make up to the point where, when we use a monocro-
matic blue filter; that is, one that will ailow only blue
to pass through and stop all of the red and green, and we
have a pure blue sky, we have reached the saturation point
of color and from thereon we have no control over differ-
ences of amounts of light coming from different objects as
far as colored filters are concerned.
Now, let’s change our subject to a blue sky and an au-
tumn foreground with brown trees, dark yellow grass, etc.,
and our greatest illumination coming from our sky. Now,
obviously, to hold back the sky to as near a balance as the
foreground, we would use a yellow filter because browns
are very dark yellows (of course, yellow being red and
green and the shade of yellow depending upon amount of
red to the amount of green), and if we reduce our fore-
ground to primary colors we have a red and green fore-
ground with the red predominating if it’s a reddish brown,
therefore our filter should be a reddish yellow filter like a
K3 or a C, or as we go heavier, a combination 23A red
and 6 green, or still heavier, a 72 gamma, all of which are
red and green combinations, with the red predominating.
Now, going back to our foreground, which is red and green,
we use a red and green filter, but in trying to handle two
colors, we lose some exposure in our foreground, although
we also gain in effectiveness against our blue sky, so let us
apply our rule by first putting on a red filter and then a
green filter instead of both at the same time. When we
add the red filter we allow all of the red in the brown to
pass through the red filter, but at the same time we stop
some of the green, depending on how much green there is
in the brown and how heavy the red is. Now we add our
green filter, which allows all of the green to pass through
that is not stopped by the red, but the green stops some
of the red, although we have a predominating red-green
combination, but at that we have lost some of our fore-
ground exposure. Now let us see how we have affected
our blue sky. When we added the red filter we stopped
the major part of our blue, and when we added the green
we stopped the balance, so that a comparatively small
Continued on Page 1 1 6
No filter used for top illustration. Bottom
illustration green filter used to secure a flat
effect in night scene. For contrast in a night
scene a red filter would be used.
of the MONTH
T HE past thirty days have seen the release of more
products of outstanding photographic calibre than any
similar period in a long time. Half a dozen or more
of the outstanding members of the American Society of
Cinematographers have displayed examples of their best
work, as though vieing for premiere honors; and although
the films are intensely varied in type and style, each is a
memorable example of the highest type of cinematography.
No student of cinematography should miss seeing any of
A Fox Production
photographed by George Schneiderman, A.S.C.
This is far and away the best opportunity that has come
the way of Cinematographer Schneiderman in many years.
He has made it an unusually beautiful photoplay, and Di-
rector John Ford has done his work with more than a little
consideration of the pictorial element. The early sequences,
especially, are notable examples of composition and light-
ing, and in them Mr. Schneiderman has achieved some re-
markable suggestions of natural depth; in all probability
some of these scenes are as close to truly three-dimensional
photography as can ever be attained with a single-lens sys-
tem. ‘‘Pilgrimage” was made throughout with standard
lens and lighting equipment, so this achievement is due
solely to Cinematographer Schneiderman’s mastery of lenses
and perspective lighting. “Pilgrimage” is decidedly a pic-
ture well worth study — and excellent entertainment, to boot.
“THE STORY OF TEMPLE DRAKE”
A Paramount Production
photographed by Karl Struss, A.S.C.
A morbid psychological study, “The Story of Temple
Drake” is hardly more entertaining than is a beautifully pho-
tographed film of a major operation; yet it is in many ways
a highly commendable production. It is marked by superb
direction and a magnificent performance by Miriam Hop-
kins — but most important of all, it is, throughout, Karl
Struss at his brilliant best. The action covers a wide va-
riety of settings and moods; but through it all, Struss man-
ages to maintain the necessary ominous note in his photog-
raphy, playing, as it were, a visual prelude like a Wagnerian
overture, subtly paving the way for what is to follow. Mid-
way through the picture are some exceptional sequences of
effect-lightings which merit careful attention from every
student of cinematography, amateur or professional. The
amateur, especially, will be interested in some of these light-
ings, as they reveal the potentialities of SuperSensitive film
and extreme low-key lightings, as well as the effectiveness of
single-source lightings made with unusually small units. One
scene, for example, is played with a match and a cigarette
for the sole light-source, while several others were made
with a single 500-watt bulb.
Aside from these technical considerations, however, ‘‘The
Story of Temple Drake” offers a vast deal of information
as an outstanding example of the fine art of cinematography.
By all means see it — but don’t expect light entertainment!
“THE WHITE SISTER”
A Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Production
photographed by William Daniels, A.S.C.
To this reviewer’s mind, at any rate, “The White Sister”
is an achievement entirely to be credited to Cinematographer
Daniels, for his superb camera work alone bolsters up an
outmoded and ailing story and a deal of uncertain acting.
His photography is unfailingly beautiful, and carries exactly
the right amount of softness to suit the tragic,, sentimental
story. His treatment of the players is excellent, showing
them to excellent advantage; his lightings are all up to his
usual high standard. The compositions are often noteworthy,
and several of the transitions are most effective; especially
the one from Clark Cable’s burning airplane to the fire-
place before which Helen Hayes is unpacking her lover’s
effects. Director Fleming — an ex-cinematographer — was
very wise in his use of the moving-camera technique, and
of other visual directorial tricks. “The White Sister,” how-
ever, is (as more than a few of the lay critics have already
observed) primarily “Bill” Daniels’ picture.
“THUNDER OVER MEXICO”
Directed by Sergei Eisenstein and released by Sol Lesser,
photographed by Edvard Tisse.
Emasculated by the regrettable embroglio which prevented
Mr. Eisenstein from personally cutting this production,
“Thunder Over Mexico” (originally known as “Que Viva
Mexico!”) is more Tisse than Eisenstein. Although un-
skilled hands in the cutting room did away with most of
the originality that is expected of Eisenstein, nothing could
destroy it — though an Eisenstein picture is not truly Eisen-
stein’s without Eisenstein’s highly individual editorial tech-
nique — it is not without its merits; for as I have said before,
while the world acknowledges Eistenstein as a master direc-
tor, it has paid all too little tribute to the photographic
ability of his Scandinavian co-worker, Edvard Tisse.
“Thunder Over Mexico” is, therefore, largely the triumph
of M. Tisse. It is the first time that he has enjoyed the tre-
mendous advantage of really good film and laboratory work
— and the results that he has achieved should give him un-
questioned rank as one of the great cinematographers of the
world. He had little to work with in “Thunder Over Mexi-
co” — no sets, no interior scenes, no artificial lighting equip-
ment, none of the many aids to exterior cinematography
enjoyed by his American confreres; just an old deBrie cam-
July 1933 9 American Cinematographer
era, hand-cranked, perforce; a few crude reflectors; some
filters; a few hundred thousand feet of DuPont negative;
a first-class American laboratory; and one of the few living
directors who really understand the visual foundation of the
cinema. With these ingredients, Tisse has achieved one of
the most superbly beautiful examples of exterior cinema-
tography ever made. He presents to American audiences the
first intimation of the real beauties of our southern neigh-
bor, Mexico; the grandeur of the ancient Maya and Aztec
ruins of Yucatan; the deserts and mountains of the North;
the pastoral beauty of the vast maguey plantations; and the
hitherto unrevealed soul and form of the Mexican peon.
It is a noteworthy achievement. Though audiences may
be disappointed at the film’s lack of the Eisenstein technique
(there are none the less a few in Hollywood who could have
cut the film understandingly ) they will surely end by pay-
ing a well-deserved tribute to that great artist. Cinematog-
rapher Edvard Tisse.
“WHEN LADIES MEET’’
A Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Production
photographed by Ray June, A.S.C.
From the reviewer’s point of view, the easiest thing to
do about this picture would be simply to state that it is
another example of Ray June’s fine work, for Cinematogra-
pher June has of late been so consistent a bell-ringer that
it is necessary only to read the words “Photographed by Ray
June” to know that a first-clas spiece of cinematography is
forthcoming. In “When Ladies Meet,” June his excelled
nimself, for he has turned out an unusually fine picture
under circumstances which were not always too propitious.
He has made the players appear extremely well — Ann Hard-
ing and Alice Brady, particularly. He has, moreover, han-
dled a picture enacted almost exclusively on pure white
sets — often a difficult assignment — in an outstanding way.
In a word, his entire technique in “When Ladies Meet” de-
serves commendation and — what is more — careful study in
A Fox Production
photographed by John F. Seitz, A.S.C.
This production furnishes an opportunity for comparison
of American and German film-technique in all its branches.
“Adorable” was made, scene for scene, from a delightful
German film called “Her Highness Commands” ( “ I hr Ho-
gheit Befeihlt”). As entertainment, each is equally delight-
ful; but the technique of the American-made version is
immeasurably superior to the continental version. Speaking
cinematographically, “Adorable” shows American cinema-
tography at its best, reflecting the more favorable physical
conditions obtaining here as well as the radically different
styles of Hollywood and Neubabelsberg. Greater attention
is here paid to personal lightings, and the production is pre-
sented in a decidedly higher key. The American settings,
though less atmospheric than the German ones, are more
sumptuous. (Personally, I am inclined to blame Gordon
Wiles for making his palace sets too reminiscent of St. Pe-
ter’s, in Rome. One can’t picture Janet Gaynor inhabiting
a cathedral!) The sound-recording is immeasurably better
in the Fox version, of course; though our music is not of
such high quality. The two films are, in short, extremely
instructive to the student of motion picture craftsmanship.
Considered purely on its own merits, “Adorable” is an
excellent picture. Photographically speaking, it is on a par
with Seitz’s finest work. His compositions and lightings
are, as ever, well-nigh flawless; and his treatment of the
stars is excellent. In several of the scenes he has had un-
usually light sets and costumes to work with, and he has
handled these in an exemplary manner. The use of lap-
dissolves in portraying the successive promotions of Henry
Garat are amusing — and most effective. The use of the
moving camera is highly intelligent, as it is used discreetly,
and to good effect — or not at all.
A Paramount Production
Photographed by Ernest Haller, A.S.C.
Cinematographer Haller has few opportunities for cine-
matic distinction in such a wild farce-comedy as this, but
he has done a decidedly commendable job. Everything had
of course to be lit for comedy; moreover, part of the pic-
ture was made in Hollywood, and part, perforce, in New
York. Despite these handicaps, Haller has turned out a
very well-balanced job of camera work. The Television in
vention which motivates what plot there is, is an excellent
example of the possibilities of process photography, for
which Farciot Edouart is to be commended. The miniature
and glass-shot sequences are also excellent, while the cam-
era work of the ballot numbers adds a deal of interest to
otherwise dragging spots.
A new lens-angle gauge .designed by Virgil E.
Miller, Camera Executive at the Paramount Studio,
and now available to cinematographers. Below is
shown the opaque, celluloid base, ruled in squares
representing feet, and perforated at the intersec-
tions of the rulings. Below is the angle-gauge, a
transparent sheet of celluloid, engraved on one
side to indicate the vertical angles covered by the
most commonly-used professional lenses, with the
horizontal angles shown on the other side. In use,
the transparent gauge is superimposed on the ruled
base, with the registering-pegs fitted into which-
ever of the perforations on the base indicate the
desired location of the camera, and the angular
coverage read off at a glance. The opposite angle
is read in the same way, with the gauge turned
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American Cinematographer • July 1933
The Riddle: What can the
cinematographer do to en-
hance a musical picture to
increase the originality and effectiveness with which musi-
cal and dancing sequences are presented; to make them in-
teresting and dynamic rather than dull and static?
CHARLES B. LANC, A.S.C., photographer of "Farewell to
Arms” and “A Bedtime Story”:
“To my mind, this is more properly the problem of the
director than of the cinematographer. Any cinematographer
however, will undoubtedly be able to furnish some ideas
which, when worked out in co-operation with the director,
the dance director and the musical director, will help to
make the presentation of the number in question more defi-
nitely a part of the picture, rather than an arbitrary interpo-
lation. This, of course, is simply in line with the cinema-
tographer’s invariable co-operation in the production of any
“Strictly speaking, I feel that musical films offer the
cinematographer many interesting opportunities for artistic
experimentation. The musical film, it must be remembered,
is potentially a new artistic medium, differing alike from
the conventional talking picture, the musical dramas and
comedies of the stage, and from silent or synchronized
films. Some few foreign productions — such as Eisenstein
and Tisse’s “Romance Sentimentale,” and a few of the Ger-
man musical-films — have hinted somewhat at the poten-
tialities of this new field. Unfortunately, the majority of
musical pictures thus far produced here have been more
properly photographed musical-comedies or revues rather
than the true film with music. A true film of this latter
nature would offer the cinematographer a tremendously in-
teresting means of expression, in which he could make his
camera, lightings, angles, movement, and so on, play their
parts like instruments of an orchestra. I should enjoy ex-
perimenting along this line tremendously — especially if I
were given the opportunity to photograph a musical drama,
in which the photographic technique would necessarily be
more on the order of that of a dramatic picture than is the
case with most musicals. The visual, photographic possi-
bilities of really great music — such as, for instance, some
of the arias from Wagner or some of the Russian operas —
would be tremendous, especially with the recent improve-
ments in color-cinematography.”
JOHN ARNOLD, A.S.C., Photographer of “The Broadway
Melody” and “The Hollywood Revue”:
“More than a few of the nationally-known film-critics
have pointed out that the Art of Cinematography has far
outstripped the creations of the scenarists; if this is true
in the case of the regular run of dramas and comedy-dramas,
it is doubly so where filmusicals are concerned. The ma-
jority of our writers, directors and producers are approaching
the musical film from the viewpoint of the stage musical-
comedy — not from the viewpoint of the film-with-music.
Accordingly, the Cinematographers assigned to photograph
such films are to a regrettable extent forced to confine
themselves to purely routine methods of photographing the
musical and ballet sequences. The inevitable result will be,
of course, an exact repetition of the musical cycle of four
years ago; the first few musicals released will succeed — and
the many others now being rushed into production, being for
the most part inferior copies of the first, which are, in turn,
largely copies of stage musicals, will become less and less
successful, until the last few will either lose tremendously,
or end on the shelves — a total loss. The only answer is for
the writers, composers, and so on, to strive to make musi-
cals primarily for camera and microphone, rather than merely
writing modified stage musical-comedies and expecting us
to record them with camera and microphone. The true
musical film offers endless opportunities, for they are virgin
soil; but our cinematographers, directors, and recordists are
at present forced to till unproductive ground, waiting for
writers with sufficient vision, and sufficient understanding
of the cinema, to provide them with really worthy material.”
JOHN F. SEITZ, A.S.C., photographer of “Adorable”:
“There is no need to expatiate upon the cinematic po-
tentialities of motion pictures with music; we have not be-
gun to explore them as yet. Under the existing conditions,
however, we are all of us working under well-nigh insur-
mountable handicaps, for the work of the various individuals
concerned in a production of this type is far from properly
co-ordinated. For instance, in many of the musical films
I have made, neither the director, the players, or I have
had any idea of much of the music of the film while we
were making the ‘musical’ sequences. In some cases, even,
the music had not even been written! This left us in the
position, figuratively speaking, of a singer who knew the
words of a song, but not the music, or of a dancer who knew
the choreography of her dance, but had no idea of the musi-
cal setting. Whatever is accomplished under such conditions
is largely a matter of luck, and no more reveals the true
possibilities of the medium than a baby’s first babblings
reveal the majestic English of Shakespeare or Milton. What
is needed is more thorough preparatory co-operation between
the writers and composers and the men on the set — the
director, cinematographer, and ballet-master. Only when
we have a complete understanding of all of the ingredients
of a musical scene or sequence can we so co-ordinate our
efforts of direction, lighting, camera-placement and move-
ment, and all, to produce a truly satisfactory result.”
HAL MOHR, A.S.C., photographer of “The Jazz Singer,”
“The Singing Fool,” “Glorious Betsy,” “Broadway,” “The
King of Jazz,” “I Loved You Wednesday,” etc.:
“The production of a musical or ballet sequence is, essen-
tially much like the production of any other type of se-
quence, dramatic, comedy, or whatever the case may be.
Accordingly, it has the same requirements: perfect under-
standing and co-operation between whoever is staging the
action, and the cinematographer. Such a sequence should
always have a definite story to tell; therefore the man who
conceives the story, the man who supervises its enaction,
and the man who records it on the film must understand
each other, and be perfectly agreed on the method of telling
the story with camera and microphone. Since each indi-
Continued on Page 1 1 5
THE SILENT FACTOR IN
B EHIND every talkie stands
your original sound record...
unknown, unseen, unheard by
the public, but arresting in its im-
portance. For clear superiority ... for
highest fidelity under all conditions
of variable-area and variable-density
recording ... use Eastman Sound
Recording Film. It is a vital though
silent factor in today’s sound suc-
cesses. Eastman Kodak Company.
(J. E. Brulatour, Inc., Distributors,
New York, Chicago, Hollywood.)
SOUND RECORDING FILM
American Cinematographer ® July 1933
General Electric Projection Lamps
• The General Electric Company an-
nounces a new projection lamp in the
100-volt class that is said to obviate the
expense and weight of auxiliary trans-
former or large resistance used in the past
with low-voltage lamps. It is the conten-
tion of the manufacturer that these lamps
give a screen illumination which averages
nearly twice as high as those available
two years ago.
The Biplane construction is now incor-
porated in five of the new lamps, in 500,
750 and 1,000-watt sizes.
It is also claimed that a marked ad-
vance has been made in the wattage for
given size of bulb and a means has been
introduced for the better control of bulb
• Harrison and Harrison have developed a
special filter for use in studios to give
the proper correction in the faces of the
players. This is a very light red filter and
is said not to increase the exposure to
any appreciable extent, but its use is
claimed to eliminate the chalkiness that
is so often the result without it.
New 8 mm. Camera
• According to an announcement from
Stewart-Warner Corporation, that com-
pany has ready for the market a new
8 mm. camera. This camera weighs a
trifle over a pound and a half. It takes
the regular twenty-five-foot roll of 8 mm.
film which, when finished, gives the
equivalent of 100 feet of 16 mm. in film
Electric Motor for 16 mm.
• W illiam J. Grace, of Dallas, Texas, an-
nounces a new remote electric control
device for the Cine-Kodak. The current is
furnished by a 6 to 12-volt battery or
can be operated on 8-20 volt A.C. It
attaches conveniently to the camera and
comes with 20 feet of cord.
Stressing Exposure Meter
• Both Willoughby and Weston stress
the importance of exposure meters to
the travelers during their vacation days.
Going into different climatic and atmos-
pheric conditions man find a change of
exposure that will be different than the
normal the Cine Filmer is accustomed to
on his home grounds.
New Rolleiflex Accessories
• According to an announcement from
Burleogh Brooks, American distributor
of the Rolleiflex camera, several new ac-
cessories have been developed for use
with that popular camera. What is termed
an iris-stop is now available. This is a
clip on stop for the finder, and serves
for ascertaining the depth of focus ac-
cording to the focusing screen as an
exposure meter. The Panorama-head is
another interesting addition. When turned
to the right a spring rachet snaps from
figure to figure. Each two adjoining fig-
ures give two connecting pictures. By
this means you can secure a continuous
panoramic picture. The stereo fitment is
attached to the tripod for the perfect pro-
duction of three-dimension pictures with
Another new accessory that is expected
in this country soon is what is termed
the Cine-film attachment. This acces-
sory consists of an adapter back-panel
with a counting mechanism (1 to 36), a
film-guide frame for the cine format, a
daylight take-up spool, single slide for
Agfa-Leica cartridges and an inlay frame
for the focusing screen. The picture for-
mat is upright.
• Announcement from Bell Gr Howell that
the 70DA Filmo can be semi-profes-
sionalized will find considerable interest
among advanced amateurs, clubs, and
others. These professional improvements
are all based on the present 70DA, which
already has seven film speeds, three-lens
turret, variable viewfinder and magnifying
critical focuser. The special features
which can be had on special order, or
may be incorporated in the present Filmo
70-D, include 100 to 200-foot film ca-
pacity, electric driving motor ( 1 2 or 110-
volt) , 8-to-l hand crank for use without
motor. This can move film backward for
lap dissolve. It incorporates a mask box
for double exposures and built-in range
New Mitchell Filter Holder
• A variable Diffusion Filter attachment
has been developed by the Mitchell
Camera Company for use on their Filter
holder. This attachment takes two vari-
able diffusion filters of the came type,
Continued on Page 1 16
July 1933 • American Cinematographer
U P TO the present time the biggest problem of all
portable sound equipment has been a satisfactory
motor system. It has even been a problem in small
truck installations where storage battery and motor genera-
tor weight is a serious problem. The prevalent system in
use is the D.C. interlock type of motor, generating either
in the regular D.C. winding or in an additional winding, an
A.C. interlocking voltage. While this type of drive gives
excellent results as far as locking the camera to the recorder
is concerned, the big drawback still remains, manual con-
trol of the speed. The customary procedure is the inser-
tion of a line voltage control rheostat which, with any
change of load on either the camera or recorder, introduces
a corresponding change in the input voltage to the motors.
This changes the speed of both camera and recorder, giving
poor recording. A poorly loaded magazine, a bumpy take-
up belt, or a number of other things can cause a momentary
change in the load which may not be detected by the op-
erator, since the tachometer itself has sufficient drag or
inertia to remain steady on slight changes of speed. The
results, however, show up as “wows” in music, giving a
decidedly unpleasant effect.
After a year of development and research, the Hollywood
Motion Picture Equipment Co., Ltd., has perfected a motor
which solves all manual control difficulties, the “Automatic
Speed Control Motor.” While the idea is not new, it has
never been successfully applied to a small D.C. interlocking
motor. In principle, the recorder motor is varied by a me-
chanical and electrical means in accordance with the power
taken from the motor. Before releasing this new addition
to the present high quality line of “ArtReeves” recording
equipment, an experimental motor was built which has been
in actual use for over six months. A number of pictures
have been successfully made with it and the results are con-
sidered amazing. On one picture the whole unit had to
be brought up to speed and ready to record in not over three
seconds because of the nature of the shots. With a man-
ually controlled motor this is absolutely impossible, as any-
one who has had to run a recording unit of this kind will
testify. With the automatically controlled motor full source
voltage is supplied to the motor until it reaches the con-
trolled speed, and then the automatic control holds it there.
Stroboscope tests have shown that with full load the re-
corder comes up to speed in less than three feet of film
and never overshoots. It stops right on 90 feet per min-
ute, and will stay within less than one-half foot per minute
H. N. McNiff
Chief Sound Engineer, H.M.P.E. Co., Ltd.
of this mark through the entire change in load to which a
recorder is subjected, namely, full magazine drag. In tests,
it has been found impossible to change the speed appre-
ciably by holding the magazine take-up belt stationary,
which would be the equivalent of a buckle
The power required to drive this new motor is no more
than that required on a standard D.C. interlocking motor.
It is rated at 1-12 H.P., but on dynamic brake tests has
been found to deliver up to '/s H.P. without a serious re-
duction in speed. These ratings are without considering
the automatic control. With the latter the power output
is increased to about 1 -6 H.P. before the speed is affected.
When recording in a cold climate where the power re-
quired to drive any machinery is greater than normal this
reserve of power is appreciated by the sound engineer re-
sponsible for results. Since the motor on a recorder is never
run continuously for more than 1 1 minutes, heating is not
a controlling factor in the performance of the motor and
may be totally disregarded. With an “ArtReeves” recorder
as shown in the illustration, the power consumed from the
D.C. source is only about 50 watts under normal load. The
customary method of supplying the D.C. is by heavy duty
“B” batteries so connected that 135 volts is supplied to
the motors. When using a camera with the recorder we use
two sets of batteries in parallel for reasons of economy.
While one set would run for around 10,000 feet of film,
Continued on Page 114
The new “ArtReeves” Speed Control D.C. Motor
mounted on Recorder and Base.
Getting Down to Brass
simply hai/i no Equals!
OMMON S E N S E dictates that
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In addition to officially approving the
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The CAMA-CANE . .
Looks like a Cane . . . Serves as a Tripod
Accommodates any cam -
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pod socket. Attachment
device is removable so
cane may be carried
without discomfort to
hand. Telescopic ex-
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Gives rigid vertical
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eliminates waver corn-
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The performance of the VICTOR Sound-on-Film
Animatophone is truly amazing. Volume. Fre-
quency-Range and Quality and Clarity of Tone
are such as were thought to be unattainable
with 16 m/m reproduction. Unbelievably sim-
ple. compact and light in weight. Entire unit,
including amplifier and speaker go in Oke
Small Case. Priced surprisingly low.
•PROFESSIONAL Criticism of the Amateur
picture is a part of the service offered by the
AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER. Many
are not aware of this. Hundreds of pictures
have been reviewed this past year by mem-
bers of the American Society of Cinematog-
raphers for the Amateur and the critical
opinion of these professionals given free of
charge. There is no fee connected with this.
You pay the transportation charges only.
This service is rendered to help the Amateur
attain the perfection toward which he is
July 1933 9 American Cinematographer 99
Contents . . .
WHEN to Use Special Effects
by Dewey Wrigley, A.S.C 100
CORRECTING Exposure Faults
by William Stull, A.S.C 101
FILMING the Air Races
by Norman de Vol, A.S.C 102
WHAT I Learned from a Professional
by Homer Matherson ., 103
WHAT Is F.2, F.3.5, F.4?
by Hartley Harrisno 104
MAKiNG Tests with an 8mm
by Robert Breeze. 1 06
by A.S.C. Members 107
AMATEUR News 108
AMATEUR Contest Announcement 121
Next Month . . .
©AN UNUSUALLY interesting article by William Stull, A.S.C., on the
widely growing use of 16mm negative ... its development and
©DESCRIPTION of anofher interesting Semi-Professional 16mm Camera.
Giving the amateur a wider latitude to approach the effects of the
©FINE Grain Development of the small negative. The wide popularity
of the small negative camera has found a great growth amongst the
Amateur Cine Filmer.
©JOSEPH WALKER, A.S.C. tells the amateur how to make under water
shots. Mr. Walker is famous in Hollywood for his ingenuity in getting
©MAKING an Industrial by an Amateur 16mm User. He tells how he
turned the eye of the 16mm camera on his own business to fine
©CONTINUITY will be discussed, giving you the importance that the
professional picture makers put on this phase of picture making.
©HERE'S HOW . . . will be more interesting than ever. Many ques-
tions wait in our files for next month’s issue.
American Cinematographer • July 1933
The thumb is resting on the adjustable
shutter control of the new Eastman Cine
Kodak. The shutter adjustment permits the
making of fades and lap-dissolves.
When To Use
Dewey Wri'gley, A.S.C.
P ROFESSIONALLY speaking, the term “special effects”
covers a multitude of scenes. As used in the studios
today, any type of photography other than the regu-
lar run-of-the-mill work done on the set is classified under
this heading: “Special Effects” photography may be any-
thing from a simple lap-dissolve or “wipe” to intricate mul-
tiple-exposure, process or miniature work. For the non-
professional cinematographer, however, the wide range of
special effects is naturally more limited; for the purpose
of this discussion we may as well consider it to embrace
only fades, lap-dissolves, wipes and the simpler types of
double exposure. Even these have been, until recently, all
but impossible to the average 16 mm. user, for the cameras
available have been designed more for the beginner than
for the advancd worker. Within the last sixty days, how-
ever, Eastman has come forth with the remarkable Cine
Kodak Special, and both Victor and Bell & Howell have an-
nounced a new model incorporating a reverse-cranking
feature, also there is the professional Berndt 16mm camera.
Accordingly, 16mm. special effects have suddenly become
objects of more than academic interest.
Simplest of these effects is the ordinary “fade-out” (and
its complement, the “fade-in”). While it is possible to
make fades with an ordinary camera, the best results will
be had with a camera which — like the new Eastman Special
— embodies a variable shutter. A fade-out is easily made
by slowly closing the shutter (while the camera keeps on
running) at the end of a scene. With the new Eastman
camera, this is done by slowly and smoothly moving the
shutter-adjusting lever up to the “closed” position, at which
point an automatic brake is applied, stopping the camera
immediately. The fade-in is, of course, merely the reverse
of this process. When using cameras not equipped with
adjustable shutters, fades can be made by closing down
the lens; but since most of us use SuperSensitive film all
the time — and few cine lenses will close beyond f:16 — this
necessitates the use of an extremely heavy neutral-density
filter or its equivalent, and the results are not so satisfactory.
The lap-dissolve (known as a “blend” in Europe, and as
a mix in England) is simply a fade-in superimposed on a
fade-out, so that as one scene fades out, the next fades in
on top of it. This is done, of course, by first making a
fade-out in the usual manner, then winding the film back
(with the shutter closed or the lens capped) to the start
of the fade-out, and fading in from that point. This is
easy with the new C.K. Special, which is equipped with an
accurate footage-meter, which runs forward and backward;
the best practice is to start your fades just as the meter has
turned from one foot to the next. The length of a lap-
dissolve can be suited to the requirements of the scene in
hand; the average professional lap runs from four to eight
feet, but some — as in Joseph von Sternberg’s “Dishonored”
— have been known to run a hundred feet or more. For
16 mm. use I would recommend making lap-dissolves from
two to three feet as a rule. It takes a bit of practice to be
able to manage this dissolving shutter smoothly, and if one
is going to make many of them, an extension-arm on the
shutter-control lever would be a distinct advantage. A use-
ful little trick practiced by most professionals is to let your
lap-dissolve overlap a bit; that is, when you rewind after
making the fadeout, wind six or eight inches beyond the
point where the fade-out started, and start your fade-in
there. This of, course, makes your incoming scene start
fading in a moment or so before the other begins to fade
out, and brings it entirely in before the first scene is en-
tirely out. In oither words, this trick makes your lap a
trifle longer, and very much smoother.
If you saw the Cine Kodak Special demonstration-reel,
you will remember one shot in which the use of the oval
matte was shown, with the matte very slowly fading in over
the unmatted shot. This, of course, was done by making
the lap-dissolve unusually long, with the fade-out part quite
a bit longer than the fade-in part, and overlapping the lat-
ter very considerably.
Wipe-offs don t differ materially from fades, excepting
that they are made by some sort of a blade moving in front
of the lens. Since they were very expertly described in the
February issue of this magazine by Frank B. Good, A.S.C.,
there is no deed for me to bore you with further descriptions
of them, except, perhaps, mention that the reverse-crank
and accurate footage-counter of the new Eastman facilitate
There is another type of trick transition, lately used pro-
fessionally, which furnishes an interesting gag for the ama-
teur — an d which, incidentally, is surprisingly easy with the
new camera. On the screen, instead of fading, lapping or
the like, this transition gives the effect of the incoming
scene putting itself together like a jig-saw puzzle. Here’s
one way to do it. Begin by making the second scene first.
Then, make a still enlargement of the first frame of this
scene; have it mounted and cut as a jig-saw puzzle (with
not too many pieces). Then go ahead and make your first
scene, fading it out slowly, and winding back in the usual
manner, just as though you were going to make a lap. Now
take your camera indoors, and line it up with the lens
pointed straight down on a black board, and so that it will
exactly cover the area of your jig-saw enlargement. Then
with the camera set for single-frame work, and, of course,
the proper lights and so on, build up your puzzle, piece by
Continued on Page 121
July 1933 • American Cinematographer 101
T IS unfortunate, in a way, that the laboratories and
methods of the processors of 1 6 mm. film are so per-
fect, for this perfection not only gives most of us little
incentive to delve into the fascinating realm of laboratory-
work, but also gives us a feeling that if our errors in expos-
ure are greater than the leeway provided by the latitude of
modern 16 mm. film and the extensive control of the auto-
matic processing-machinery, our badly-exposed scenes are
beyond redemption. Sometimes this is all too true, of course;
but not invariably.
If you entered cinematography by way of still-photogra-
phy, you probably realize, without being told, that certain
chemicals will build up, or “intensify” a weak image, while
others will lighten, or “reduce” an over-dark one. Both of
these processes can be carried out in daylight — and they are
quite as feasible with cine film as they are with the plates
and films of the still-photographer. Moreover, the better
16 mm. processing plants (especially those of Eastman and
Agfa) are fully able to reduce or intensify 16 mm. films;
sometimes they do this as a part of the regular processing,
in cases where their own work has for some reason been
faulty, or in cases where it is obvious that such modifica-
tion would be of great benefit to the film. In any event,
they will reduce or intensify over-or under-exposures on
special orders, at a nominal charge. But it is so easy to do
this yourself, and so interesting, that many cinematographers
will, I am sure, find it worth their while to try their own
hands at it.
If you’ve had experience in intensifying and reducing still
negatives, you will know something of the action of these
solutions; but you will have to remember that, in working
with reversal film you are actually working upon a positive;
and where you intensify an underexposed still negative, you
must reduce a reversal-film; and where you reduce an over-
exposed still negative, you must intensify the reversal-print.
On the other hand, of course, if you are using the negative-
positive system, you can intensify and reduce the negative
exactly as you would if it were a “still” — and forget about
the print. In working with reversal film, there is also an-
other important factor, which must be remembered: some
reducing and intensifying agents tend to color the emulsion;
and while this is really an advantage in still or negative
work, it is a serious disadvantage in working with reversal
film, which must be projected. Accordingly, the most satis-
factory solutions to use are those which do not alter the
coloring of the silver deposits that form the image.
As Crabtree and Muehler have
pointed out (Journal of the S.M.
P.E., Vol. XVII, No. 6, P. 1003 et
seq.) intensifiers may be classified
according to their chemical action,
under four headings:
1. The silver image is alloyed
2. A neutral or colored com-
pound is deposited on the
3. The silver image is more or
less replaced by a colored
compound of silver, a colored
compound of another metal,
or by a dye.
4. Metallic silver is deposited
on the silver grains.
For treating reversal film, which
must be projected. Nos. 1 and 4
are probably the most successful.
A very satisfactory formula for a
mercury intensifier is the Eastman
ln-1 formula, a modification of the
well-known Monckhoven’s Intensi-
fier. This solution is:
Mercury Intensifier ( I n - 1 )
Mercuric Chloride 3 oz.
Potassium Bromide 3 oz.
Water to make 1 gallon
The film is bleached completely in
this solution, washed for 5 minutes,
and re-developed in either the
Eastman D-16 formula or any regu-
lar MQ developer, washed and
dried in the usual manner. This
formula is especially good for pur-
poses in which a high degree of
contrast is desirable, and may be
Continued on Page 109
An enlarged strip of
16 mm. film. The up-
per portion is of over-
exposed film before
which is shown in
bottom half of illus-
The equipment necessary for this work is essentially the
same as that recommended for tinting and toning in an
article on those processes in the May issue of “THE
RAPHER.” It can be extremely
simple, whether a capacity of five
or ten feet of film at a time is de-
sired, or if larger quantities are to
be treated. Some methods of in-
tensification and reduction call for
three or more solutions, and all of
them require at least two and a
wash; but this, of course, is merely
a matter of providing sufficient
trays or tanks.
Intensification is probably the
more satisfactory of the two, as —
due to the nature of the reversal
process — it has the greater oppor-
tunity to produce results. Neither
process will, however, produce de-
tail that is not at least latent in
the original film.
102 American Cinematographer • July 1933
Norman de Vol. A. S. C.
T HE grandstand at the Los Angeles Municipal Airport,
where the National Air Races will be flown the first
four days of July, this year is at the south side of the
field, facing north. That means an even front and side
lighting. Sixty feet in front of these stands will be a strong
wire fence, beyond which nobody will be allowed. Just
across this fence will be the pits — stalls for the contesting
planes. One thousand feet straight out from the grand-
stand, in the middle of the field, will be the home pylon,
around which the racing planes will turn, and which marks
the start and finish of the races. The race-course will be
behind the stands, so that the ships will come past the ends
of the stands to turn around the pylon, yet never be head-
ing into the crowd — a very important safety precaution.
The sixty-foot parking between the stands and the fence,
for instance, as well as the construction of the fence itself,
gives the amateur a great deal of leeway in selecting his
set-ups; and the occupants of the grandstands are free to
come and go in this space in the sections lying in front of
their seats. Placing the pits just in front of the fence, too,
gives the photographer an opportunity to make closeups of
of the various planes, and candid-camera shots of the famous
pilots, without being either in the way or in danger of de-
capitation from an unnoticed propellor.
Filters will depend on the immediate conditions: with
semi-chromatic or Ortho films filters don’t cut much ice;
with either type of Pan you’ll get the best results with the
Aero 2 filter or — if there are clouds — the 23-A. In a pinch
you can use a K-2 or K-3; but the best all-around filter
will undoubtedly be the Aero 2. The exact choice, of course,
will have to depend on the effect you want to get; whether
you want to have the ships dark against a light sky, or vice-
Your best bet will probably be a two-inch lens; you don’t
want to get too close to the racing planes, for then the
matter of following their movement becomes rather compli-
cated; so a two-inch will take care of most of your needs,
and a regular one-inch, held in reserve, will be useful for
closer shots, such as scenes of the ships in the pits, etc. And
the two-inch (or even a three, if you have a turret camera)
will give you some surprisingly good candid-camera closeups
of the different aces when they are in the pits.
By all means use a tripod; of course, it means more bulk
to lug around — but it’s the only sure way of getting your
horizon level in the fast shots of the races. And you've got
to have your camera level if you want your pictures to be
There are four days of races, and I would suggest plan-
ning to use at least 200 feet of film per day; more will be
better, if you can afford it, for it will give you leeway for
N.C.’d shots and unexpected action.
A fine background for your main title would be a head-on
shot of an airplane with a steel propellor “ticking over,’’
underexposed or filtered down so that it will be very dark,
with just the highlights here and there winking on and off
as the metal prop revolves.
There will be Army, Navy and Marine Corps demonstra-
tions of fighting, attack (ground-strafing) , bombing, smoke-
screens, etc., which will be extremely worth shooting. There
will be daily exhibitions of stunting by a trio of Hollywood’s
leading film-stunt-fliers and by several of Europe’s foremost
aces, which will demand your attention. There will be the
finish of the Bendix Trophy race from New York, and of
course the Thompson Trophy race for men, and the Aerol
Trophy race for women, in both of which the greatest of
fliers will participate, and in which speeds of about 300
m.p.h. will be seen. There will also be attacks on the
world’s land-plane speed record for men and women, with
still higher speeds certain. On “Movie Day,” a number of
the flying stars of Hollywood — Lt. Ben Lyon, Lt. -Com-
mander Wallace Beery, Ken Maynard, Hoot Gibson, Sally
Eilers, Ann Harding, Howard Hughes, Henry King, Bert Glen-
non, Hal Mohr, A.S.C., Clarence Brown, Douglas Shearer,
A.S.C.; Elmer Dyer, A.S.C., and other flying picture-celebri-
ties will participate. At night, for the benefit of those with
fast lenses and SuperSensitive film, there will also be night
flying, stunting with illuminated planes, and the like.
It would suggest that you merely study the first day’s
races through your finder, as most of them will be repeated
later, and the practice will be more valuable than the film
— though if any crashes occur, you might do well to catch
them. (As the races are getting better organized each year,
crashes are becoming fewer and fewer.) The first events
that you should get will be the arrival of the Army and Navy
squadrons, which should be spectacular, with the many
squadrons arriving in formation and landing. Next will
come the attack on the world’s speed record for women.
This will probably call for the one-inch lens, as the tiny
Continued on Page 116
July 1933 • American Cinematographer 103
L. Cuy Wilky, A.S.C., explains some of the basic
principals of exposure to the author.
T’S the simple things that count. That at least is my
impression after talking to L. Cuy Wilky, A.S.C., whom
I met on the boat crossing the Pacific.
He was coming back from Ceylon. The first question I
popped at him was what is the normal exposure in Ceylon,
down there in the tropics.
He never told me. And I did not realize it until right
now, although we talked photography and cinematography
for several days. I have the impression from his talk with
me, that he, as well as most of the leading cinematographers
received their first training and knowledge from the still
The most interesting discussion centered around the ex-
posure guide on my camera. He first translated this from
the still camera standpoint into aperture and time, showing
me the equivalents of the various apertures in their relation
to time. He laid it out for me as follows:
Seconds 1-5 1-10 1-25 1-50 1-100 1-200
Aperature F.16 11 8 5.6 4.0 3.5
and explained that all of these were equal. The results, so
far as quality of negative was concerned, would be the
same, excepting, of course, where we use the smallest stop
there is a greater depth of focus.
From here we took the 16-picture per second interpre-
tation. My camera has a 205-degree shutter, which gives
approximately a 1 -28 second exposure. In view of the fact
that it is not adjustable, as is the professional camera, there
could nothing be done with changing the time from the
shutter standpoint, so when pictures were being taken at
I 6 frames per second the only thing I would have recourse
to for different lighting conditions was the lens iself.
This, however, did give me a fine conception of the
values when taking slow motion pictures. I realized from
this description that if I were to take pictures at 32 per
second I would have to open one more stop — the same as
though I were shooting a still camera, and increased the
speed from a normal of 1-50 of a second at f.5.6 to 1-100
of a second I would have to open the lens to 4.0.
He pointed out that the mathematician would prove that
the stops as he indicated were not exactly again as fast,
but for all purposes, and because of the latitude of the re-
versible film, they would serve admirably. They were the
stops as indicated on the camera and the lens manufac-
turers have made these markings to indicate as closely as
possible with standard readings the next largest or smallest
The more I studied this over the more basic I realized
this simple information was. It was something that I had
accepted, but had not really classified in my mind.
In the discussion I realized that in the use of filters, if
I knew the factor, it was simple to figure out the correct
stop. Here s how it worked out. I must first find my nor-
mal exposure and square that. Let’s say the normal is
F.l 1. Multiplying the figure by itself gives you the square
of that figure, so 11x11 would equal 121. Let’s say the
factor I am using is 6. I then divide the square of the
stop by the factor, which gives me 121 divided by 6, giv-
ing me as an answer approximately 20. The next step is
to find that root of that number. We know the root of
any number is that number which multiplied by itself will
equal the number. In other words, the root of twenty is
the number which, multiplied by itself, will equal 20. This
number would be approximately 4.2, which would be the
lens reading. I familiarized myself with this formula by
taking the various stops and different factors and working
them out until that formula is firmly entrenched in my mind.
I have read it many times, but it always sounded so con-
fused to me. I am wondering if in the simple way I have
told it, it is still confusing to some.
He also showed me how to find the speed of one stop
over another. This requires a bit more “square rooting” and
quite as simple. You divide the square root of the smallest
stop by the square root of the largest stop, and there is
your answer. Let's say we want to find how much faster
FI. 9 is than F3.5. We then multiply 3.5 by 3.5, which
gives us 12.25. We then multiply 1.9x1. 9, which gives us
3.61. We now divide 12.25 by 3.61 and we have the
speed, which is about 3.4. This means that FI. 9 is approxi
mately three and a half times faster than F3.5.
I wondered how they determined their exposure in dif-
ferent parts of the world as they traveled. Wilky told me
that the usual method is to make a test going through vari-
ous stops, developing that test and from that determining
the correct normal stop. He stressed the importance of
Continued on Page 113
F.2 F.3.5 F.4 ?
A S the photographer of today is getting farther and
farther away from the box camera, we hear more
^ and more the expressions such as shutter opening,
depth of focus, the lens stops of F.2, F.3.5, etc., and when
a certain picture is being discussed between fellow pho-
tographers the stop used is always mentioned as a general
way of indicating the exposure and telling the other fellow
how it was done.
FHowever, the surprising thing about the use of the ex-
pression “lens stop” is the great variety of interpretations
and meanings that it is intended to convey. And since the
interpretations are too numerous to even attempt to explain,
it might be well to refresh ourselves as to what F.2 or any
other stop actually is, rather than what it is intended to
If we look at the graph in Fig. 1 we see a number of
lenses placed in a dotted angle. The lenses are of different
focal length, which positions them a certain distance from
the film and of a sufficient size to fill the angle in their
respective positions, but all are marked with the same F.
value. The dotted line is intended to show a cone of light
104 American Cinematographer • July 1933
and as you move further out into the cone you must neces-
sarily have a larger lens to catch all the light in the cone,
and unfortunately, as we increase the size of the lens, the
curve is lessened and the focal length is increased, because
the hemisphere, or half of a ball, is the greatest variable
curve that can be made, and if we wish a larger lens we can
only make one-half of a larger ball. But the reverse is also
true in that the stronger the curve the closer the lens must
be to the film, and the further down in the cone its posi-
tion is. The diameter of each lens is marked and also the
focal length, and as we have chosen simple combinations it
can readily be seen that if the focal length of the lens is
divided by its diameter the result will be 2. in all of them,
which in this particular illustration are the F. values. And
that is exactly what the F. value means.
Instead of saying that the focal length is, let us say 6
inches, and the diameter or aperture is 3 inches, and letting
the other fellow figure out whether that would be a large
or a small opening for that focal length lens, it is just pre-
figured by the lens manufacturer and stated as the F. value.
Obviously, if the free aperture or diameter is diminished and
then divided into the focal length the F. value will be higher,
also the amount of light which can enter the lens will be less.
But let me repeat, the F. value indicates aperture rela-
tive to focal length, and nothing else, and it is not an indi-
cation of the amount of light or exposure that the lens will
give except as one stop is relative to another stop on the
same lens. For instance, a lens set at F.2 will give four
times as much light as the same lens set at F.4, but that
in no way is an indication of how much light the lens gives
at F.2, or how much exposure on the film; it only means
that at F.2 there is four times the light that there was at
F.4, whatever that amount was.
Practically all the lens manufacturers mark the lens stop
so that each stop cuts the light in half from the preceding
stop, such as an F.4 lens which is wide open will have the
next stop at F.5.6, and the next one at F.8, and so on;
F.5.6 being half the area of F.4 and F.8 being half the area
of F.5.6. Obviously, if the area is cut in half the light will
be cut in half also.
Although the graph shows only simple piano convex lenses,
the rule is the same for corrected lenses, and the number
of lens elements used is immaterial, except that sometimes
it is a little more difficult to measure the free aperture.
However, the additional elements decrease the transmission
of the lens over a simple lens and the transmission varies
from 90% for a simple lens to as low as 38% for some
of the corrected lenses, depending upon the number of ele-
ments, the type of glass, the lens curve, and whether they
are cemented, or glass-to-air.
This variation in transmission is present in practically ev-
ery different type of lens combination, so that an F.2 lens
of one optical combination will not necessarily have the
same tranmission as another F.2 lens of a different combina-
tion. In fact, there has been such extreme differences in
transmission of lenses that have been put on the market, as
only 38% transmission for an F. 1.5 lens and 62% trans-
mission for an F.4 lens, that merely comparing lens speeds
by their F. value is sometimes very misleading.
And it has been suggested that photographic lenses be
marked as to their transmissions and in that way definitely
couple the stops with the lens’ speed. For instance, suppose
an F.2 lens has a transmission of 50% of the incident light,
when the lenses are wide open and set at F.2. At F.4 the
light will be one-fourth of 50%, or approximately one-
eighth of the incident light, and by measuring the incident
light we can definitely ascertain how much of the incident
light is actually being impinged upon the film with every
Continued on Page 1 12
July 1933 0 American Cinematographer 105
Master of Movie Miracles/
An example of a
double exposure shot,
easy to make with the
Special. One expo-
sure of the girl and
room — wind back —
another exposure of
the man against a
That's all there is to it.
Too, with the variable
shutter, he can be
made to fade in, then
A professional-type cam-
era using 16 mm. film
Unequalled among 1 6 mm.
cameras in ability, Cine-Kodak Spe-
cial ignores the restrictions of
ordinary movie making technique.
It creates wholly new opportunities
for movie clubs, doctors, scientists,
engineers . . . challenges even the
highest movie making ambitions . . .
opens the bag of Hollywood tricks.
Double exposures . . . dissolves . . .
fades . . . slow motion . . . animation
. . . mask shots . . . are all a part of
the Special’s repertoire.
The standard model of Cine-Kodak
Special is equipped with a Kodak
Anastigmat /. 1.9 lens, double lens
turret, one ioo-foot film chamber, a
set of six masks. Cost, thus equipped,
$375. Despite its unparalleled ver-
satility — so varied are the uses to
which the Special will be put that
occasional minor alterations or spe-
cial accessories may be necessary.
Inquiries relative to such work
should be forwarded by your dealer
to the Eastman Kodak Company for
advice and estimate.
FREE BOOK AVAILABLE
A copy of the Cine-Kodak Special
book will be mailed to you free upon
request. Eastman Kodak Company,
Rochester, New York.
IF IT ISN'T AN EASTMAN, IT ISN'T A KODAK
The reflex finder shows on a
ground-glass screen the field of
the taking lens — permits visual
focusing with all lenses.
The Special’s exclusive vari-
able shutter makes fades and lap
dissolves easy and certain —
gives extra exposure control.
The eight- and one-frame
hand crank shafts have many
uses — among them winding back
for dissolves, double exposures.
Interchangeable 100-foot and
200-foot film chambers enable
you to switch from one film to
anotheri n a few seconds.
106 American Cinematographer 0 July 1933
With an 8 mm.
I FUSSED around for several weeks trying to cheat the
manufacturer of the 8 mm. camera. I wanted to enjoy
the enonomy of the 8 mm. in some tests, but I didn’t
want to invest in an outfit. But today I own one.
But let me tell you of some of the fun I had trying to
make an 8 mm. out of a 1 6 mm. I cut a mask exposing
just one-quarter of the aperature of the 16 mm. I placed
this right in front of the aperature; how I did it is too long
a story and not worth the effort. I ran the film through
once, then without rewinding ran it through again. Then
I changed the mask to the other side, ran the film through
again and then without rewinding ran it through the fourth
time. I had to go through all of this bother again on the
projector. It was fun figuring it out, but a nuisance doing
it. So I bought an 8 mm. camera.
Since I have it, it strikes me that cameras are getting like
automobiles. It is not a happy home unless you have two
in the family. When I am not using it for testing, my wife
uses it; in fact, she has appropriated the camera as her
own, and it is now known as “her” camera.
However, the real value I have found in it is that when
I am going to undertake a serious bit of cinefilming, some-
thing about which I want to be dead sure, I will usually
take it first in 8 mm, at least those phases of it about
which I feel a bit uncertain. This permits me to do some
testing with economy. Gives me a confidence in the work
with the 16 mm. that I would not have otherwise.
You can do practically everything with an 8 mm. camera
that you can accomplish with a 16 mm. so far as straight
shooting is concerned, and that is what most of us are doing.
If I am going to do a picture that has a bit of continuity
in it and my family is acting as the cast, I usually shoot that
picture first in 8 mm. I find my weaknesses and faults.
Find how I can improve angles, where I can inject more
close-ups and things like that, how to improve the close-up
and other vital angles. It helps me tremendously in improv-
ing technique in picture making. I do not feel so sensitive
about shooting 8 mm. in this way; it doesn’t seem like an
extravagance. In fact, I feel more extravagant shooting the
16 mm. and getting poor results than I do in experimenting
with the 8 mm. Possibly it is just psychological reaction,
but there is something about shooting 16 mm. where one
is a confirmed cine filmer that doesn’t permit us to throw
it away or to look upon it merely as an experiment.
I find, too, that it has helped me to educate my wife in
the mysteries of photography that I did not seem able to
do with the 16 mm. I suppose the 16 mm. to our minds
is like using an expensive car to teach some novice how to
drive. We would sooner use some old auto for this, feeling
that the learner cannot harm it very much.
I find that the 8 mm. is giving me an interest in new
things. I do not hesitate to experiment a bit with it: Such
as attempting to secure pictures of ants. Playing with the
lens and a ground glass, turning it out as far as possible and
placing a shim back of it so as to shorten its focal length.
I have experimented in this fashion and then to secure a
closer focus have contrived to mount a portrait lens in front
of the regular 1-inch lens.
In some instances I have secured pictures which I feel
are a great deal better than some I have attempted in 16
mm. This is not because of the equipment, but because
of the freedom I have felt in taking them.
I tried, in addition to turning the lens out and the por-
trait lens in front of that, of also adding another glass . . .
a reading glass. I got as close as 5 inches by this method.
I know it will be possible to get up within 2 inches, but
this was just my first experiment. I had not built shims
for turning the lens out to its furthest point. But I did
find with this addition of the reading glass that one must
be mighty careful, as the addition of too many glasses is
inclined to give you distortion on the least provocation.
Don’t treat the 8 mm. with disdain. Excepting for the
fact that it does not give as large a picture as the 16 mm.,
it has practically everything the average 16 mm. camera
possesses. Give it the same attention . . . give it the same
respect in the making of pictures and you will find some
dandy surprises on the screen. In fact, if you let yourself
go a bit in the use of it and try some of the things you have
been wanting to experiment with . . . some of the things
you would like to do if you had the nerve, you are going to
convince yourself you are a great deal better photographer
than you believe you are.
I have tried imitating the professional with it. You
know, shooting up at a tall building, getting that modern-
istic angle. I jacked my car up at the rear, then made the
wheels go around to cut in a close-up on a traveling scene.
I wanted to see the best angle to shoot such a scene. I
tried it at various angles with the 8 mm., something I
wouldn’t have done with the 16. I found the right angle
and then proceeded to register that scene in the 16 mm.
picture I was making. I find the 8 mm. a handy possession.
July 1933 9 American Cinematographer
REFLECTIONS ON GLASS AND
SILVERWARE. “In making close-
ups of tableware in a picture I'm
working on, I’ve had a great deal
of trouble with unwanted reflections
from the silver and glassware. How
can these be prevented ?”
H .P. K. . Denver.
• In some instances, careful attention to
lighting will be all that is required, but
there are several simpler and quicker ex-
pedients which will always work.
Classes, goblets, and all hollow glass or
silverware can be filled with ice or ice-
water; when brought into a warm room,
or under the heat of incandescent lights,
this will cause the outer surface to be-
come dewed, and non-reflective. Dabbing
the surface with putty will also kill all
reflections; this is done daily in the
HAROLD WENSTROM, A.S.C.
PURE ALCOHOL. “Several for-
mulas I am working with specify
alcohol, but I have been unable to
get any which does not contain the
Prohibition Dept.’s additions. Can
any be obtained which is pure
enough for photographic use?”
R. V. J.. Cleveland.
•You can get chemically pure alcohol
from any chemical or bacteriological
supply house by asking for Eagle metha-
nol, Columbian methanol or spirits, or
methyl alcohol, C.P.
PARK RIES, A.S.C.
FILTERING THE “MACON ”.
Living near the Navy's zeppelin
base. I have an excellent opportun-
ity to photograph the “Macon" and
the other Naval dirigibles in the
air. What film and filters should
I use to get the best results?
J. A. C.. Lakehurst . N . J.
•Since the envelopes of these craft are
doped with aluminum pigment, your
problem is to darken the sky so that they
will stand out boldly. I would therefore
recommend a 23-A or even an F filter if
you use Super-Sensitive film, or a C filter
if you use regular Pan. In either case,
hold your exposure down, and see to it
that the ship is against clear blue sky, not
a hazy, greenish-blue sky. Also, don’t
try to get it against white clouds, though
clouds are excellent in other parts of the
by A. 5. C. Members
Can You Answer These
These questions were submitted
by the Los Angeles store of the
Eastman Koday Company at the
June meeting of the Los Angeles
Cinema Club giving prizes for those
who could give the most correct
answers in 8 minutes. Try your
hand. Then see the correct
answers on page 1 I 2.
1 . How much more exposure does f 8
stop give than f 16? (Check correct
answer with X.)
2X 5X 8X 4X
2 . Does a 3 -inch lens working at f 8
give as much exposure as a l-inch at
3. How many times does a 6 -inch Tele-
photo magnify over a normal 16 mm.
ZX 4X 6X dX IZX
4. In which direction should one pano-
Left to right Right to left
5 . Approximately what is the nearest
correct exposure at which an Eastman
Cine Kodak operates? 1/100
1/10 1/5 1/32
1/75 Bell & Howell, Model
DA 1 100 1/10
6. How many frames per second does a
16 mm. camera operate at normal
24 16 32 64
7. The correct stop is f 8. You will put
on a 4 Filter. Where should you
now set the diaphragm? F16
FI l F5.6 F4.5 F 1 .9
8. If f.8 is the stop to use at 16
frames, what should you use at 64
F16 Fll F4
9. What effect does a Red Filter have on
the sky when using Panchromatic
10. How many pictures are on a foot of
16 mm. film?
16 100 40 32
1 1 . Approximately how long does 100
ft. of 16mm. film run in minutes at
normal speed ?
2 3 4 5 6
12. Over-exposure makes a dark or light
(underline correct word) picture on
16 mm. reversal film.
13. Which gives the largest field — a 1-
inch lens 2 -inch lens 6-
inch lens 15mm. lens
14. When using Regular Panchromatic
Film the stop is f.8. What should
you use with Super-Sensitive Pan-
chromatic Film. F
picture. The only time to silhouette such
a ship against light clouds is when the
clouds are in the sunlight and the ship
in the shadow.
HARRY PERRY, A.S.C.
FILTERS. What are the factors of
the following filters with ordinary
and superspeed Pan film: XI, G,
23A, 56, 90, 3N5 and 5N5. Also
of the combined 23 A and 56 for
night effects? What are 90, 3N5
and 5N5 used for?
R. C. R., Calcutta.
•The filter factors, as represented, are
contained in the following table:
The 72 filter is not recommended for
use with Type Two and the use of the
23A+56 combination is not recom-
mended for Super-sensitive. The use of
the 23A-|-56 combination with Type Two
is to enable one to produce night effect
scenes under sunlight conditions. The
72 filter is made use of with Super-sensi-
tive for this same purpose. These filters
for night effect work, when used with
the proper emulsion, should be used at
apertures from f ,1 .9 to f 3.5, depending
upon the light condition.
The No. 90 filter is used as a viewing
filter in that it reduces the visual effect
obtained through it to a monochromatic
value, thus enabling the eye to judge
the lighting contrast nearly uneffected by
The 3N5 filter is made up of the Aero
1 and a neutral density of 0.50, trans-
mission of 32%, while the 5N5 is made
up of the Aero 2 with the same neutral
density. These are single filters with
the respective dyes of each incorporated
in them. The purpose of these filters is
to give the color correction effected by
the Aero 1 and 2 respectively but at the
same time causing a decrease of exposure
due to the neutral filters, thus allowing
the cinematographer to make his ex-
posure at a relatively large lens aperture
on exteriors. By so doing, the depth of
focus is decreased and attention is cen-
tralized on the object in focus.
The XI and the 56 filters are both
green and are not generally used for ex-
terior cinematography. Their use is more
applicable to commercial photography
using panchromatic emulsions.
EMERY HUSE, A.S.C.
108 American Cinematographer • July 1933
Set used to demonstrate Eastman
Cine Special at Cine Club meeting.
Los Angeles Club Holds Unusually
• Under the generalship of William Win-
ter, manager of the Los Angeles East-
man store, the June meeting of the Los
Angeles Cine Club was given a program
that was claimed by many to be the
The program was replete in every de-
tail, with the new Eastman Cine Special
being the center of interest. There were
no long talks. Mr. Babb, general west-
ern representative for the Eastman stores,
spoke briefly on the history of the 1 6
mm. camera from the time of its first
being launched in a large way by East-
man some years ago up to the develop-
ment of the present 16 mm. Cine Special.
A fine demonstrating reel was pro-
jected, showing fades, lap-dissolves,
wipe-offs and the other seeming miracles
that this camera performs. A mighty
fine Kodacolor was shown which was
plainly seen on the large screen by that
portion of the audience that was sitting
approximately 100 feet from the screen.
A professional make-up artist from
the Max Factor Company was present to
make up the girls who were used in a
picture taken right there at the meeting.
He explained the reason for making up
the girls which acted as models. Ned
VanBuren, A.S.C., set the lights for the
Forbes Filming Bugs
• Kenneth B. Forbes of Claremont, Cali-
fornia, is getting close to earth with
his camera. His effort is toward a pro-
duction whose main characters will be
the bugs of Southern California. Forbes
is using a six-inch telephoto lens at-
tached to a reflex prism finder.
picture and then pictures of fades and
dissolves were made which will be pre-
sented at the next meeting of the Los
Angeles Cine Club.
For those clubs who wish the details
of this program, a copy can be had by
writing the editor of “THE AMERICAN
CINEMATOGRAPHER.” This meeting ran
so smoothly and was so highly enjoyed
that its success undoubtedly would be
duplicated with other clubs.
Putting Continuity in
• Birthday pictures just must be made.
Just such events were the reason for
developing the 16 mm. camera and film.
Continuity, however, has been somewhat
the bugaboo of the producer. W. Gaert-
ner tells how he has solved this:
“I have just completed a little sketch
which covers six years of birthday films
of my little girl. The film dates up to
a few days before her seventh birthday.
The opening scene is laid in the living
room with her mother telling her to ad-
dress the birthday invitations. From this
I cut into addressing envelopes in daugh-
ter’s own handwriting (which, of course,
is very crude) ; mailing, bedroom scene
on morning of birthday, children arriving,
games on lawn. Suddenly mother calls
to children: “Do you want to see the
movies?” Children runnning projector —
screen and room background with open-
ing title of first birthday, with succeed-
ing annual affairs. At end it fades to
blowing out candles on cake. Close-up
of each child at table leaving house, with
final scene of daughter standing alone in
close-up waving good-bye.”
Prize Picture at Chicago
® “Lullaby,” the picture which was given
second prize in the American Cinema-
tographer 1 932 contest, was selected by
the Bell & Howell Company for showing
in their exhibit at the Chicago Century
This picture has gained national fame
through this contest because of its fine
composition and photography. Schools
in various parts of the United States have
requested copies of this production to be
placed in the school library for elementary
The many clubs who have witnessed
it, as well as the professionals to whom
it has been shown, have showered it with
Kansas City Club Views
• At the last meeting of the Kansas City
Cinema Club the main feature of the
evening's entertainment was the third
prize-winning picture in the 1932 Amer-
ican Cinematographer Amateur Contest,
“Lullaby,” which was made by Okamoto
This picture has been conceded by all
of the clubs and those interested in 16
mm. work who have viewed it, one of the
finest subjects ever to have been photo-
graphed with a 16 mm. camera. It is
an outstanding work both from the pho-
tographic and composition standpoint.
Brackett Makes Novel
® C. E. Brackett, who is associated with
the Hollywood branch of the Bell &
Howell Company, has contrived a simple
but effective wipe-off gadget for his
The illustration at bottom shows how
he has fastened a piece of wood to the
alignment gauge and at the front of that
another piece in which he has cut grooves
into which he fits a black cardboard. He
has this groove marked at the point
where the wipe-off starts and where it
finishes. With the swivel arrangement
he manages also to use these wipe-off
effects from many different angles.
July 1933 • American Cinematographer 109
Correcting Exposure Faults
in the Dark Room
Continued from Page 101
repeated if greater density and contrast
are desired. To increase the contrast
very greatly, when shadow-detail is not
important, the following can be substi-
tuted for the regular re-developer:
Sodium or potassium cyanide. 2 oz.
Silver nitrate 3 oz.
Water to make I gallon
Dissolve the cyanide and the silver ni-
trate separately, then add the latter to
the former until a permanent precipitate
is just formed; allow the mixture to stand
a short time, filter and use. This latter
solution is deadly poisonous, and should
be used with extreme care.
As a simpler method, equally effica-
cious, but better suited to the require-
ments of the average man, I have found
that the well-known “Victor” intensifier
— which appears to be a variant of the
Monckhoven formula — and the ordinary
Eastman MQ ready-mixed developer are
excellent. The illustration was produced
by this method. I found that, on the
average, an immersion of from two to six
minutes in the bleaching solution pro-
duced as high a degree of intensification
as is normally necessary, with an average
of perhaps 2!/2 minutes for most scenes.
Re-development takes about five min-
utes; and don’t fall into the mistake of
removing the film from the developer too
soon, or you will lose in the effect you
wish, and also leave some trace of color
on the film. When used with certain of
the semi-chromatic reversal films, the
Monckhoven intensifier has a tendency
to increase the natural purplish-brown
tone of the film, considerably, though by
no means objectionably. As some of these
films do not use a fixing-bath after the
second development, it is also wise to fix
the film thoroughly before intensifying.
The results obtained by this process are
really surprising; some of my tests hav-
ing salvaged scenes so badly over-ex-
posed as to be quite worthless otherwise.
It may also be observed that certain
of the toning solutions referred to in the
article on the subject in the May issue
also have a certain intensifying effect —
especially the “Tabloid” Blue and Sepia
toners; of course, they also color the
image, as well as intensify it.
Certain of the commercial Chromium
intensifiers are also useful, though they
have a greater or less colorative action,
as well. The Eastman ln-4a is an ex-
cellent formula for this type of intensi-
The most nearly ideal solution, how-
ever, is the silver intensifier, which is ex-
tremely powerful (Crabtree and Muehler
report having achieved an intensification
of 140% by repeated applications),
gives an absolutely neutral image, and
assures lasting results. An excellent form-
ula for such an intensifier is:
Silver Intensifier (ln-5)
Stock Solution No. 1
Silver Nitrate 2 oz.
Water to make 32 oz.
Stock Solution No. 2
Sodium Sulfite (dessicated ) .... 2 oz.
Water to make 32 oz.
Stock Solution No. 3
Sodium Thiosulfate (crystal ) 3 Vi oz.
Water to make 32 oz.
Stock Solution No. 4
Sodium Sulfite (dessicated) 219 grs.
Elon 351 grs.
Water to make 96 ozs.
The intensifier is prepared as follows:
Slowly adding one part of solution No. 2
to one part of solution No. 1, stirring to
obtain thorough mixing. The white pre-
cipitate which appears is then dissolved
by the addition of 1 part of solution No.
3. Allow the resulting solution to stand
for a few minutes until clear. Then add,
with stirring, 3 parts of solution No. 4.
The intensifier is then ready for use and
the film should be treated immediately.
The time of intensifying averages be-
tween 10 and 25 minutes, but should
not exceed the latter figure. After in-
tensification, the film should be im-
mersed in a plain 30% hypo solution and
then washed thoroughly. The life of this
solution averages from 30 to 45 min-
utes, after which a precipitate of silver
You’ll never buy it again at this price!
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MAIL ORDERS FILLED
1)0 American Cinematographer • July 1933
CUSTOM BUILT 16 MM
WITH SOUND ON FILM
• 1000 ft. magazines optional
e 400 ft. magazines, regular equip-
• 200 ft. magiz : nes optional
• Veeder-Root footage counter
• Mask slot, and reverse take-up
o One frame and 8 frame crank
• Coerz Variable view finder
• Focus-on-film, 1 OX magnification,
o Four lens turret, standard lens
• Variable shutter for fades and
• Side tension aperture
• Silent Cam movement
Special equipment designed and
ERIC M. BERNDT
112 East 73rd Street
Widely used by discriminating pro-
fessional and amateur cinematographers,
the high quality and performance of
Coerz Lenses are factors in the creation
of their constantly growing popularity.
COERZ YELLOW CLASS OPTICAL
UNCEMENTED FILTERS are recom-
mended, at this time, as the ideal
means for perpetuating the lazy cloud
effects of summer and the gentle
modulation of tones and semi-tones on
the hill-sides and in the valleys.
Booklet AC7 on requpst
C. P. COERZ AMERICAN
317 East 34th Street New York
You will be
the results and
the s a v i n g s you
achieve. No. 1, 100 ft., in
green box, $3.00; No. 2, 100 ft.,
in red box, $3.50.
Prices include Processing, Scratch-
Proofing and Return Postage.
105 West 4Cth St. New York
forms in the solution and tends to de-
posit on the highlights and produce fog,
so a fresh solution should be compounded
for every batch of film treated. If one
application of this treatment is not suffi-
cient, it can be repeated a number of
With reversal film, reduction is not
nearly so effective as intensification, for
while a reducer can — and will — lighten
an over-dark film, it cannot produce de-
tail which is not already in the film.
Therefore, while one can get amazing re-
sults in intensifying over-exposed films,
one can only expect good results from
reducing films which have been mildly
under-exposed. Like intensifiers, reduc-
ers can be classified in several groups, ac-
cording to their action; but for use with
reversal film, only one type — that known
as a Super-proportional” reducing agent
— appears to me to be satisfactory. Such
a reducer attacks the heavier deposits of
the shadows more powerfully than it does
the highlights, and naturally lightens the
dark places (reveaiing any hitherto un-
seen detail which may be in the film),
while leaving the highlights relatively un-
affected. Crabtree and Muehler recom-
mend the following as an excellent super-
Ammonium Persulfate Reducer (R-l)
Water 3 cc
Ammonium Persulfate 1 liter
Sulfuric Acid (cone.) 60 grams
Water to make ...500 cc.
For use, take one part of this stock so-
lution and two parts of water; when re-
duction is complete, immerse the film in
an acid fixing-bath for a few minutes,
wash and dry.
An excellent commercial ammonium
persulfate reducer is the "Tabloid” so-
lution, marketed by the Burroughs-Well-
come Co. This requires treatment of the
film in a solution of sodium sulfite after
reduction, and thereafter immersion in a
regular acid hypo bath, and the inevitable
wash and drying.
Before either reduction or intensifica-
tion (especially the latter) it is advisable
to treat the film for five minutes with
the following hardening solution:
Formalin Hardener (SH-1)
Water ...64 ozs.
( 40 % ) 1 1 /3 ozs.
(dessicated) 2/3 oz.
Water to make 1 gallon
The films should then be rinsed and
immersed in a fresh acid fixing-bath for
five minutes and well washed to insure
freedom from silver compounds and hypo.
LOWEST PRICES KNOWN
for 16mm Silent Films
All brand new films newly released.
1 reel 400 feet 1 6mm comedy subjects
now only $10.25.
The Honeyspooners The Love Doctor
Why Get a Divorce Jazz and Jealousy
Broadway Cr Chauncey St., Brooklyn, N.Y.
“The Professional Film for the Amateur’’
provides you with a
NECATIVE FOR SAFE KEEPING
POSITIVE FOR PROJECTION
100 ft. reel, fast, semi-chromatic. .$5. 00
100 ft. reel Supersensitive $6.50
Mention your dealer’s name when
1 6 mm.
The quality of a Reversible Stock
is reflected in the duplicates it will
make. Agfa's fame is unquestioned
— our system permits of corrections
and frequently a finer prinf in the
duplicate than was contained in the
original. For extra prints of your
most prized pictures you can make
no wiser choice than Agfa Reversible
Agfa Reversible Panchromatic Safety
Film — Agfa Reversible Super-sensi-
tive Panchromatic Film
Ask Your Dealer
Agfa Ansco Corporation, 29 Charles
St., Binghamton, New York.
Agfa Ansco Corporation, 11112 Mer-
chandise Mart, Chicago, III.
Agfa Ansco Corporation, 223 W.
Third St., Los Angeles, Calif.
Binghamton, N. Y., U. S. A.
July 1933 0 American Cinematographer 111
Sensitometric Control in the
Processing of Motion
Continued from Page 88
is derived from the H and D curve, such
as is shown in Fig. 4. That portion of
the curve with which we are interested
in the determination of latitude is the
straight line portion. If from the lim-
its of the straight line perpendiculars
are dropped to the log exposure axis,
a simple determination can then be made
of the exposure value where each of these
perpendiculars hit the axis. The ratio
between the two exposure values thus
determined gives a measure of the lati-
tude. Quite a little consideration is
given to the latitude of an emulsion in
the processing of sound records on film.
A thorough appreciation of the impor-
tance of latitude as it affects negative
and positive picture has not been at-
Fog is an important constant in that it
gives definite information regarding the
final results of the developed photo-
graphic images. Fog may be considered
as an actual density which has arisen
from sources other than intentional ex-
posure to light. It may be considered
under two general headings, inherent fog
and development fog. Inherent fog may
be the result of certain of the silver
grains being made developable by the
chemical processes involved during the
manufacture of the emulsion. It may
also be due to slight exposure to light
during some stage of the handling, either
prior or subsequent to its final and in-
Development fog arises from such va-
rious causes as the action of fogging
agents or reaction products in the de-
veloper, aerial oxidation, etc. Fog is not
detectable until after development. From
a purely practical standpoint no par-
ticular attention is paid to fog unless it
gets outside of accustomed grounds. For
example, in the development of positive
film a fog value of .03 to .05 is quite
normal and unless fog builds up beyond
this limit it is disregarded, other than to
record it. However, excess fog, which
is readily detectable visually, plays a det-
rimental part in both picture and sound
quality. Precaution is continually exer-
cised to prevent fog of either the inher-
ent or the development type.
Speed Control Motor
WRITE FOR PARTICULARS
Motion PicTure/^quipmenT (a | Id
64 5 NORTH MARTEL AVE-
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HOLLYWOOD, CALIFORNIA. U-SA
112 American Cinematographer 9 July 1933
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AMATIJER SECTION PAGE 121
16mm Sound-On-Film Pictures
• Single or Double System Recording •
• Sound Stage and Location Facilities *
• Dubbing Sound to Silent Subjects •
All Work Done Directly on 16 mm. Film
Pan-American Cinema Studios
142 Columbia Ave. North Bergen, N.
“The Pioneer 16mm ‘Sound-on-Film’ Picture Producer
What Is F.2 F.3.5 F.4 F.56?
Continued from Page 104
stop setting. But that is getting away
from the subject of what a definite stop
actually means and there is one thing
more that is very important, in the mean-
ing of a definite stop; namely, a change
in the character of the image with the
change of stop.
In any lens there is always a definite
increase in depth of focus as the lens is
stopped down, and therefore always has
a definite meaning as to the quality of
the picture; that is to say, an F.8 pic-
ture always has a greater depth than an
F.2 picture, regardless of the lens used.
The reason for this is very simple. The
Fig. 2 shows a simple 4-inch lens work-
ing at F.2 wide open, the solid wide angle
illustrates the lens focusing two peri-
pheral rays of light on the film place and
thereafter crossing the same angle at
which they are coming from the lens. The
two vertical solid lines that are drawn,
ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON
HERE’S HOW PACE
1 — F8 gives 4 times as much ex-
posure as F 1 6.
2 — Theoretically all lenses at the
same stop, regardless of focal
length give the same exposure.
3 — A six-inch lense gives a 6
time magnification over a 1
4 — Panoram in the direction of
the action. That is panoram
with the action.
5 — All cameras operate at a
speed in the neighborhood of
1/32" inch varying with the
6 — 16 frames per second.
7 — With a factor of four the
closest opening is F4.5.
You’ll find the formula for
figuring this on the story in
this issue under the title,
“ What I Learned from a Pro-
8 — The proper stop Would be
F.4. This is equivalent to a
factor of 4 . You have in-
creased your speed 4 times.
9 — A Red Filter will darken the
10 — There are 40 pictures on a
foot of 16mm film.
11 — About 4 minutes. There be-
ing 40 pictures to the foot
and the speed being 1 6 pic-
tures a second, it is a matter
of multiplying 40x16 and
dividing by 60 second to se-
cure the minutes.
12 — Overexposure makes a light
13 — The 15 mm lense gives the
14 — Use FI 6 the Supersensitive
Film being faster.
July 1933 9 American Cinematographer 113
one on each side of the focusing point,
form an arbitrary distance that will give
a circle of confusion or blur one-eighth
of an inch in size when the film is placed
at either extreme position. Or, in other
words, a lens working at F.2 would give
a tolerance movement of one-half of an
inch before creating a blur or circle of
confusion greater than one-eighth of an
inch. The second dotted line illustrates
two central rays which should be the ex-
treme rays if the lens were stopped down
to F.4 and being at a much lower angle
the tolerance movement is increased to
one inch as shown by the two dotted
vertical lines for an extreme movement
of the film. Obviously, if there is a
greater tolerance in the position of the
film, there is the same tolerance when
objects are at different distances because
their crossing point will be closer or far-
ther away than the focus setting. The
other factors that enter into the defini-
tion are so much less in importance that
they can never over-balance the angle
What I Learned from a
Continued from Page 103
this by his experience in Ceylon. While
the light seems more intense down there,
still the humidity filled the air with so
much moisture that the light is filtered
and it requires a larger opening than is
used in California. However, he did give
credence to the exposure meter by ad-
vising that if one is traveling the best
thing they could carry with them to se-
cure good results would be a good ex-
The thing that interested me intensely
was his talk on indoor lighting. From
his remarks I gathered that it is the gen-
eral practice of most professional cine-
matographers to work their lenses wide
open on sets. They reduce the light in
preference to closing down the lenses, or
they reduce their shutter aperture. The
reason for this is that because of dra-
matic action it is important to have the
audience concentrate on the principal
characters, and for this reason the back-
ground is thrown out of focus. Also the
wide open lens gives them a softer pho-
tography, especially for close-ups, as
the lens, especially of the fast type work-
ing around f2.0, will help to soften the
photography because of the imperfections
in these fast lenses due to spherical and
I also learned that it is the habit of
the professional to usually make close-
ups, even outdoors, at a larger opening
than usual. That is, they may open up
two or three stops beyond normal and
if necessary use a neutral density filter
in order to secure this softness. Also
with the negative positive method addi-
tional control can be given to the nega-
tive in the laboratory to further accentu-
ate this softness.
All in all, I believe those last few
days talking photography to L. Cuy Wilky
were the most profitable days I had on
my entire trip.
Clouner Heads Warner
• Charles Clouner, for many years head
of the camera department for Universal
Pictures, has been signed as Camera Ex-
ecutive for Warner Bros. -First National.
He succeeds Milton Cohen in the post.
H.C.E. Sunshade and Filter
A Boon to Leica Users
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114 American Cinematographer £ July 1933
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Price $3.50 and up
Filters $1.50 and up
If your dealer cannot supply you, order
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Super Photofloods for the Studio
Continued from Page 90
The increase in intensity should prove
doubly valuable, for it is another step
towards the cinematographer’s ideal of
gaining more natural effects through the
use of fewer lighting units. This in-
creased intensity should, too, result in
more pleasing light-balances. One has
often heard the plaint of cinematograph-
ers, “Inkies are nice, but they don’t
carry." The light of a Super-photoflood
should have a marked improvement in
this characteristic. Even in the cursory
tests thus far made with these new units,
a marked increase in carrying power is
noticeable; shadows are softer and more
natural, while the high-lights still retain
a desirable softness and definition.
For an understanding of these factors,
we must again revert to the theoretical.
The illustration shows comparative spec-
troscopic curves of the standard 1 500-
watt PS-52 bulb and the new Super-
photoflood 2000-watt PS-52. It will at
once be noticed that, aside from the gen-
erally higher efficiency of the new bulb,
the characteristics of the two bulbs in
the invisible infra-red region are mark-
edly different. The present type gains
in efficiency as it penetrates farther and
farther into this zone, while the Photo-
flood’s curve begins a pronounced down-
ward swing shortly after passing from the
visible red to the invisible infra-red. In
other words, the major part of the energy
applied to the Photoflood is returned in
the form of visible, useful light instead
of (as is the case with the standard
lamp) being wasted in the production of
useless, invisible infra-red radiations.
This brings to light another advantage
of the new globe — one which is especially
marked when used for natural-color cine-
matography, of course, but notable in
any case. It is well known that heat-
rays and infra-red rays are, if not abso-
lutely identical, very closely related; and
that the farther one penetrates into the
infra-red spectrum, the greater the
amount of heat carried by the rays. The
standard Mazda lamp, with its very con-
siderable infra-red radiation, is, there-
fore, quite as much of a heat-machine
as it is a light-machine. The Photoflood,
on the other hand, with its curtailed
infra-red emanation, will diffuse mych
less heat in proportion. One has, unfor-
tunately, been as yet unable to make ac-
curate measurements of this factor, but
according to the General Electric engi-
neers, and others, this should be in the
neighborhood of one-half to one-third
less than the heat-radiation of a com-
parable standard Mazda lamp. This
means, in practical terms, that everyone
on the set — especially the actors, of
course- — will be able to do their work
better, with less fatigue; longer hours,
when necessary, will be less tiring, and
a normal working-day will produce bet-
ter work from everyone, without levying
so great a tax on the physical and ner-
vous energy of the personnel on the set.
When considered for their application
to natural-color cinematography — and
with the announcement of Technicolor’s
three-color process, there is anticipated
a definite increase in color-production —
the Super-photoflood is doubly useful. Its
greater overall intensity at once simpli-
fies the problem of lighting for color;
moreover, its increased blue-violet radia-
tion is particularly adapted to the needs
of all color-cinematographic processes. Its
closer approximation of natural light sim-
plifies the problems of the technicolorist,
as it makes it possible to use the same
camera successively on interiors and ex-
teriors without alteration of the delicate
beam-splitter filter-unit. And its great-
ly reduced heat-radiation will undoubted-
ly prove a blessing to the actors and
others working on color sets, where the
increased illumination hitherto demanded
has brought with it super-tropical tem-
Automatic Speed Control
Continued from Page 97
two sets in multiple will give service for
40 to 60 thousand feet or more. Since
the automatic control unit is a power
change device the running down of the
batteries has no effect on the speed of
the motor and the voltage may drop as
low as 110 volts before affecting the
Thus you can see it will handle a volt-
age change of from 20 to 30 volts suc-
The simplicity of operation is an out-
standing feature in the use of this motor
system. Once the necessary preliminary
adjustments have been made all that the
operator has to do is to throw on the
switches and the entire unit is ready to
work in about three seconds. Waste
starting footage is cut to a minimum.
Because of the rather complicated
necessary equipment which is included in
the switching base, and because of the
many tests to be made before releasing
the motor to a customer, the latter is
never sold separately but only completely
mounted, wired, and tested on the re-
Milner on Vacation
• Victor Milner, A.S.C., having com-
pleted Paramount’s “Song of Songs,”
starring Marlene Dietrich, under the di-
rection of Rouben Mamoulian, has been
enjoying a well-earned vacation. His next
assignment is reported to be Ernst Lu-
bitch’s production of Noel Coward’s play,
“Design for Living.”
July 1933 9 American Cinematographer 115
STUDIO SOUND RECORDER
For Clow Lamp Recording
Price $1,145 Complete
Licensed under Fearless Camera Co. patents.
Complete Equipment Comprises
1. Recording Amplifier with ample gain and power supply unit for
use on 1 1 0 volts, 50 or 60 cycles
2. Recording-head with optical slit for glow lamp.
3. Condenser Microphone with 2-stage amplifier and 30 feet of
4. Necessary cables and glow lamp ready for operation.
5. Screw-lock, flush type cable connectors.
6. Synchronous Recorder Motor for 50 or 60 cycle circuits.
7. Film Footage Counter.
8. Recording Head arranged for Bell £r Howell magazine.
9. Two-position mixing circuit.
Film Sound Recorders
Disc Sound Recorders
Cables and Cable
A new Fearless A. C. Operated Light Valve Recorder for studio use
now available at $1,245
NOTE: Complete information on D.C. operated Portable or Studio Sound Recording
equipment for Clow Lamp or Light Vavle Recording will be submitted promptly to
CINEMA SOUND EQUIPMENT CO.
8572 Santa Monica Blvd. Hollywood, California Telephone: OXford 4262
Riddle Me This
Continued from Page 94
vidual sequence of this nature is a story
in itself, it follows that the technique of
filming each sequence will be different.
Such sequences are, to my mind, rather
like individual solos in an orchestral com-
position when considered in relation to
both the picture as a whole and to their
individual parts. I believe that the cam-
era’s function in such instances should
be analogous to that of the conductor’s
baton in conducting a symphony; not that
the camera should be constantly on the
move (although moving-shots have their
definite place, as in every sequence) , but
the camera should serve to co-ordinate
the individual scenes with each other,
and the sequence with the production as
a whole. In ballets especially (though it
is hardly less so in musical interludes) a
thorough understanding of the visual
/alues of the cinema is vital: a misplaced
traveling-shot, close-up, or long-shot;
lack of understanding of rythm, or light-
ing, will ruin the best-planned action.”
SALV ADORE POLITO, A.S.C., photogra-
pher of ‘‘42nd Street,” ‘‘Gold-Diggers of
“In the production of the filmed musi-
cal-comedies and revues, such as we have
been making lately, the function of the
camera can be compared to a pair of
opera-glasses in the hands of a member
of a theatre-audience: properly used,
they bring the spectator close to any in-
teresting or important bits of business,
allow one to admire the perfection of
form of the dancers, members of the
chorus, etc., and are laid- aside when
spectacular or beautiful stage-pictures are
to be viewed en masse. In my last two
pictures, I have found that if close co-
operation and understanding exists be-
tween the dance-director and the cinema-
tographer .the work of both is at once
lightened and improved. Such a dance-
director as Busby Berkeley, for instance,
realizes the importance of this: therefore,
we work together in the closest co-opera-
tion. After rehearsing any number sev-
eral times as a whole, we find that it is
easy to break it down into its individual
components. Then we prepare a special
continuity, in which the thing is consid-
ered from the cinematic viewpoint — as
apart from either the dramatic, the musi-
cal, the choreographic, or the purely pho-
tographic, for the desired result must be
a perfect combination of all four. Con-
sidered in this light, it is easy to separate
the routine into its components — stage-
pictures and individual business. Once
this is done, the cinematic technique dic-
tates itself, just as does the technique of
an ordinary dramatic sequence. We know
that certain things must be brought close
to the spectator; that other things are
more effective when viewed at a dis-
tance, as a pictorial long-shot; and that
some action will be benefited by moving-
camera treatment, while other action
would be killed by such treatment. The
greatest skill, of course, is required in
introducing and concluding such inter-
ludes — joining them to the major plot of
the picture, so that they are not just
interludes, or extraneous embellishments,
but active parts of the story. This can
be quite as much a problem to the cine-
matographer as it is to the director, bal-
let-master, and the rest. The space here
is far too limited to detail the examples
of this technique as they should be de-
scribed; but the two productions I have
recently made with Mr. Berkeley shculd
serve as excellent examples of what can
be achieved — regardless of the material
at hand — by such co-operation.”
116 American Cinematographer • July 1933
and Daily Print
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Special Effect Use of Filters
Continued from Page 91
amount of red and green, each one stop-
ping blue, will stop the blue entirely —
therefore, we need not lose as much ex-
posure in the foreground as would seem
at first blush in order to reduce the sky
to the common gray of the foreground
that we want.
Another situation is a blue sky and
green trees, shrubs, grass, etc., with gray
sidewalk, etc., the blue sky having the
greatest illumination. Applying our rule
again, we would use a green filter to
decrease the sky exposure and allow all
of the green to pass through the filter
and obtain the least contrast possible
between the blue and the green by re-
ducing all of the light to green. The
use of green filters for flat night and gray
dawn scenes is very effective because
there is usually a predominance of green
foliage to be had, also if there are peo-
ple in the scene the green holds back
the red in the faces and gives a darker
gray gray appearance that is very natural
for that kind of scene.
The examples of filter applications and
combinations are unlimited, but the three
illustrations should serve as a guide to
practically every situation there is in
making flat scenes. However, we did not
mention making contrasty moonlight
scenes, so we will use our first illustra-
tion of the blue sky, white clouds, white
house, etc. If we use a red-yellow filter
of very red and less green combination
we will get the greatest exposure from
our whites that can be had, because we
are getting most of the red and some
green from our white, and we will turn
our blue sky black, giving extreme con-
trast instead of the flatness we obtained
with the blue filter on the same scene.
Also, if there are people in the scene
light from the faces will pass through
the filter almost the same as light from
the white house, so that they will have
the contrasty white faces which have
been so apparent in many of our moon-
Wheels of Industry
Continued from Page 96
starting from clear to the density desired
by the Cinematographer. They overlap
each other, coming in from opposite sides,
and by means of a screw and rack they
are worked so as to bring the deeper
density in from each side and overlap
each other. This eliminates the diffu-
sion coming in from one side, which has
been the case up until now and has been
very obvious on the screen. This new
method brings the diffusion in from both
sides at the same time. This type of
holder has been in demand among the
studio cameramen for a long time, especi-
ally for dolly shots. The adapter was de-
signed by Joseph Walker, A.S.C. George
Scheibe manufactures the filters for this
• In our report last month on the rewind
being marketed by the Fotoshop of
New York City, we failed to mention that
this device is also an editor, as well as a
New Victor 5 Speed Model
• Announcement from Victor Animato-
graph Company described a new 5-
speed 16 mm. camera to sell at $67.50.
This is finished in gold-flecked lava
brown with chrome trim and equipped
with the Triple Anastigmat Dallmeyer
F.2.9 fixed focus lens. The camera is
known as their new 5-Speed Model 3.
Filming the National
Continued from Page 102
racing planes will be flying so fast they’ll
be hard to follow; they will make four
runs in opposite directions over the meas-
ured one-kilometer straightaway course,
diving to gain speed, and passing in front
of the stands, about 50 or 100 feet in the
air at speeds of about 300 miles per hour.
Try the one-inch lens on the first run,
and the two-inch on the successive ones
if you find it feasible. Filtering will de-
pend on the coloring of the planes used.
After this, the fortunate and fair lady-
pilot will probably be called "front cen-
ter” to the judges’ stand, where you can
get some nice close-ups with the 2-inch
or 3-inch. The next important event will
probably be the arrival of the Bendix Tro-
phy racers from New York (the winner
probably having made the hop in less
than ten hours) ; another job for the 2-
inch. The try for a world’s delayed-
opening parachute jump, in which the
jumper will try to fall four or five miles
before opening his ’chute, will probably
be poor picture-material, so take it or
leave it, as you wish. I’d leave it.
"SECOND DAY.” Here you can be-
gin to shoot the regular events — the less-
er races for commercial pilots, the stunts,
and the military displays. The stunting
will take place at altitudes ranging from
ground up to 3,000 feet, with most of
it under 200 feet. Capt. Udet, the Ger-
man Ace of Aces (remember his flying in
"Piz Palu?”), specializes in extremely
low stunting. The French stunter who
flew last year specialized in stunting too
close to the stands. The Polish and Ital-
ian representatives specialize in precision
flying. And the piece de resistance is
Flight Lieutenant R. L. R. Atcherly’s
"Crazy Flying”: this Englishman (a for-
mer holder of the world’s speed record)
can do more hair-raising evolutions with-
out leaving the ground than anyone would
dream could, be done, even by an addle-
July 1933 8 American Cinematographer 117
pated student-pilot. His “turn” often in-
cludes playing tag with a motorcycle po-
lice-officer, climaxed by running the rep-
resentative of the law ignominously off
the field. All of these stunt-exhibitions
call for a judicious admixture of the 1-
inch and 2-inch lenses, with the two pre-
dominating. And don’t forget closeups
of the European aces! The next major
event is the Cleveland Aerol Trophy
speed race for women: excellent practice
for the still faster Thompson Trophy race
for men, and (at better than 250 m.p.h.)
a thriller in its own right. It’s a job for
the 2-inch lens and filters — and don’t
forget the closeups of the ladies!
THIRD DAY. This will be a good
day to concentrate on the Army and Navy
“shows.” Mostly two-inch lens work,
with some for the three. Heavy filters
for the smoke-screens and bombing, with
the exposure held well down. This will
also probably be movie day, when you can
shoot Hal Mohr and Wally Beery chasing
each other around the race-course. Don’t
forget the closeups, even if Hal isn’t
quite so decorative as May Haizlip or
FOURTH DAY” — being July fourth,
this will be featured by a number of spe-
cial events, not as yet definitely an-
nounced, and by the super-speed classic,
the Thompson Trophy race. By this time,
you should have your hand well in at film-
ing high-speed racing, and have seen
enough of your previous work to know
exactly how to handle your camera to
get the best possible pictures of 300
m.p.h. racing. This will also be a day to
fill up your other sequences with indi-
vidual shots of planes and pilots, and to
make those “added scenes” and “re-
takes that every good picture needs.
There will also be some chance for this
the following day, after the show has
closed, for many of the contestants will
still be at the field — and the crowds will
be smaller, with most of the restrictions
removed. And by this time, you will,
from experience, be able to pass on to
the other fellow the advice: “Don’t use
too long-focused lenses; Don’t forget your
tripod; artd Never think you’ve got
Killing the Process Hot Spot
• Ingenious methods for obtaining results
have made history in the development
of Cinematography. With the popular use
of Process Photography one of the prin-
cipal bugaboos has been the hot spot on
the screen. Several ingenious cinematog-
raphers have overcome this by various
methods. However, the most popular
seems to be either the use of an opaque
pencil, which is used for covering the
center of the glass in front of the projec-
tor to about the size of a half-dollar,
making the center heavy and gradually
bleeding off. The other is the use of a fil-
ter in front of this glass, with the center
dark and gradually lightening toward the
ANDRE DEBRIE, INC.
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NEW YORK CITY
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118 American Cinematographer • July 1933
A MONTHLY MAGAZINE
Camera Craft gath-
ers beauty, facts,
all sorts of interest-
ing information from
all over the world to
keep its readers fully
informed. It has a
that makes a spe-
cialty of new
wrinkles and infor-
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703 Market Street
San Francisco, California
Len Roos Gets Royal Appointment
• Len H. Roos, A.S.C., F.R.P.S., now in
Java making “Nature in the Raw” for
Universal, reports that he has been hon-
ored with a Royal appointment from the
Soesoe Honan of Soerekarta. He writes:
“Through the good graces of some
friends in Java, I was invited to photo-
graph the ceremonies relating to the mar-
riage of three of the Royal Household of
the Soesoe Honan of Soerekarta (who is
the Sultan or King of the Javanese). For
splendor I have never seen anything to
touch it, and Universal should appreciate
these, the first pictures ever made in the
palace. The dances and costumes were
beyond anything I have ever seen, and
the gold displayed was amazing. I got
the whole works in sound, and the com-
pleted picture should be very interesting.
To top it off, I have received a Royal
Carbon Reduced in Size for
• Interest is keen in Hollywood in the
recent carbon development for studio
lighting made by the National Carbon Co.
Primarily designed for the use of three-
color process, as is employed by the Tech-
nicolor Company, these carbons were de-
veloped with a new type of core material,
reducing the diameter from '/ 2 -inch to
8 mm., and then applying a copper coat-
ing. It is claimed this carbon carries as
much current as the half-inch carbon car-
ried, but gives a 40%% increase in
Mole-Richardson is developing the lamp
house and the first twenty-five are being
delivered soon to the Technicolor Com-
pany for final tests under actual studio
Karl Freund, A.S.C., to
• Karl Freund, A.S.C., has been assigned
to the direction of Universal’s musical
production, “Moonlight and Pretzels”
(originally “Shoot the Works”, which is
now in production at Astoria, L. I. This
film — -Cinematographer Freund’s second
American directorial assignment — stars
Mary Brian and Leo Carrillo, and is be-
ing supervised by Stanley Bergerman.
Appointment from the Soesoe Honan as
Cinematographer to his Royal Highness.
I am informed that a decoration is to fol-
low. The appointment is the Royal Coat
of Arms in colors (many) together with
a letter in Javanese.
Commercial Studio Employs
Silent Debrie Camera
• One of the first of the silent Super
Parvo Debrie cameras to be delivered in
this country was received by the Jam
Handy Picture Service, Inc., of Detroit,
After using this camera in the studio,
John Stricler of that corporation reported
as follows to the New York office of the
Andre Debrie corporation:
“We operated the camera recording
with microphone as close as 18 inches
from the camera in a very live set and
were unable to hear any camera noise.
Our recording equipment is Western Elec-
tric Noiseless and is in first class condi-
Lights Discussed at S.M.P.E.
• At the June meeting of the S.M.P.E.
held in the Bell & Howell auditorium,
Hollywood, under the chairmanship of
Emery Huse, A.S.C., the latest develop-
ment in studio lighting was demonstrated.
Among those addressing the gathering
were Elmer C. Richardson, of Mole Rich-
ardson, who demonstrated and explained
the new development in arcs for the use
in making three-color pictures.
R. M. Maxwell, of the Electrical Prod-
ucts Corporation, described a development
of his company known as the Lumenarc,
a gaseous tube unit for daylight quality.
Ralph E. Farnham, of the Mazda Lamp
Division of the General Electric Company,
described a new development in incan-
descent lamps for motion picture lighting.
John Boyle, A.S.C., in
• John W. Boyle, Past President of the
American Society of Cinematographers,
is in New York concluding distribution
arrangements for a series of Multicolor
short-subjects he recently produced.
Used in 96 % /G
^TlUP-of the studios^
the world g
MAX FACTOR MAKE-UP STUDIOS
HOLLYWOOD • • CALIFORNIA
July 1933 # American Cinematographer 119
DIRECTORY of DEALERS
Handling the American Cinematographer
Phoenix: Studio of Sound, P. O. Box 1671.
Tucson: William M. Dennis, 22 United Bank
Nogales: A. W. Lohn, 309 Morley Ave.
judsonia: Lee’s Novelty House.
Berkeley: Berkeley Commercial Photo Co., 2515
Beverly Hills: Bob Robinson Home Movies, 417
N. Beverly Drive.
Fresno: Potter Drug Co., 1112 Fulton Ave.
Glendale: Kug Art Photo Service, 205 So.
Hollywood: Bell & Howell Co., 716 North La-
Educational Projecto Film Co., 1611 North
Hollywood Camera Exchange, Ltd., 1600 N.
Hollywood Citizen, 6366 Hollywood Blvd.
Hollywood Movie Supply Co., 6038 Sunset
J. V. Merchant, 6331 Hollywood Blvd.
Morgan Camera Shop, 6305 Sunset Blvd.
Universal News Agency, 1655 Las Palmas.
Los Angeles: California Camera Hospital, 321
O. T. Johnson Bldg.
Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., 643 So. Hill
T. Iwata Art Store, 256 East First St.
Lehnkering Pharmacy, 1501 N. Western Ave.
B. B. Nichols, 731 South Hope St.
Tappenbeck & Culver, 10958 Weyburn Ave.,
Victor Animatograph Corp., 650 So. Grand
Wilshire Personal Movies, 3150 Wilshire
Monrovia: Cliff’s Photo Art Shop.
North Hollywood: Studio City Pharmacy, 12051
Ventura Blvd. •
Oakland: Adams & Co., 380 14th St.
Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., 1918 Broadway.
Pasadena: The Flag Studio, 59 East Colorado St.
Richard Fromme, 965 S. Fair Oaks.
A. C. Vroman, 329 East Colorado St.
Richmond: La Moine Drug Co., 900 Macdonald
Sacramento: Frank McDougal, 1017 10th St.
San Bernardino: Steele’s Photo Service, 370 D
San Diego: Harold E. Lutes, 958 Fifth St.
Ace Drug Co., 820 W. Washington St.
Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., 419 Broadway.
San Francisco: Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc.,
21 6 Post St.
Hirsch & Kaye, 239 Grant Ave.
San Francisco Camera Exchange, 88 Third
Schwabacher-Frey Stationery Co., 735 Mar-
Sherman. Clay & Co., Kearny & Sutter Sts.
Trainer-Parsons Optical Co., 228 Post Street.
San Jose: Webb’s Photo Supply Store, 66 So.
San Rafael: Webb & Rogers, 4th & B Sts.
Santa Barbara: J. Walter Collinge, 1127 State
The Camera Shop, 800 State St.
Faulding’s, 623 State St.
Stockton: The Holden Drug Co., Weber Ave.
& Sutter St.
Logan Studios, 20 N. San Joaquin St.
Denver: Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., 626 Six-
The May Co., 16th & Champa Sts.
Bridgeport: Harvey & Lewis Co., 1148 Main
Danbury: Heim’s Music Store, Inc., 221 Main
Hartford: The D. G. Stoughton Co., 1255 S.
Watkins Bros., 241 Asylum St.
Meriden: Broderick & Curtin, 42 E. Main St.
Middletown: F. B. Fountain Co., 483 Main St.
New Haven: Eugene F. Clark Book Shop, 343
Norwich: Cranston Co., 25 Broadway.
Waterbury: Curtis Art Co., 65 W. Main St.
New Castle: E. Challenger & Son.
Wilmington: Butler's Inc., 415 Market St.
Wilmington Elec. Spec. Co., Inc., 405 Dela-
DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
Washington: Columbia Photo Supply Co., Inc.,
1424 New York Ave., N. W.
Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., 607 14th St.,
Robbins, National Press Bldg., 529 14th St.,
Clearwater: Courtesy Cigar Store, Post Office
Jacksonville: Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., 129
W. Adams St.
Miami: Miami Photo Supply Co., 31 S. E.
St. Petersburg: Robinson's Camera Shop, 410
Tampa: Burgert Bros., Inc., 608 Madison St.
Atlanta: Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., 183
Boise: Ballou-Latimer Co., 9th & Idaho.
Bloomington: Hawkins Studio, 214 W. Wash-
Chicago: Aimer, Coe & Co., 105 N. Wabash
Associated Film Libraries, Inc., Suite 224,
190 N. State St.
Bass Camera Co., 179 West Madison St.
Central Camera Co., 230 S. Wabash Ave.
Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., 133 N. Wabash
Fair, The, Camera Dept., 7th Floor, State-
Lake Shore Radio Co., 3204-6 Broadway.
Lyon & Healy, Inc., Wabash Ave. at Jack-
Stanley Warren Co., 918 Irving Park Blvd.
Norman Willets Co., 318 W. Washington St.
Wolk Camera Co., 201 S. Dearborn St.
Evanston: Aimer, Coe & Co., 1645 Orrington
Hattstrom & Sanders, Inc., 702 Church St.
Galesburg: Illinois Camera Shop, 84 So.
Moline: Seaholms Kodak Co., 1507 Fifth Ave.
Rockford: Johnson Photo Shop, 316 E. State St.
Springfield: Camera Shop, The, 320 S. Fifth St.
Evansville: Smith & Butterfield, 310 Main St.
Fort Wayne: The Howard Co., Inc., 112 W.
Indianapolis: L. S. Ayers & Co., Dept. 290,
1 West Washington St.
South Bend: Ault Camera Shop, 122 S. Main St.
Terre Haute: Snyder's Art Store, 21 S. 7th St.
Cedar Rapids: Camera Shop, 220 Third Ave.
Davenport: Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., 318
Des Moines: Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., 808
Iowa City: Rexall & Kodak Store, 124 E. Col-
Sioux City: Lynn’s Photo Finishing, Inc., 419
Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., 608 Pierce St.
Waterloo: Mack’s Photo Shop.
Topeka: Hall Stationery Co., 623 Kansas Ave.
Wichita: Jack Lewis Film Service, 329 Sedg-
Lawrence Photo Supply, 1 49 N. Lawrence
Lexington: W. W. Still, 129 W. Short St.
Louisville: A. L. Bollinger Drug Co., Stilz &
Sutcliffe Co., 225 S. 4th Ave.
Alexandria: The Newcomb Studios, 324 John-
Monroe: Griffin Studios, P. O. Box 681.
New Orleans: Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., 213
Auburn: Wells Sporting Goods Co., 52-54
Portland: Bicknell Photo Service, 43 Exchange
Baltimore: Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., 309 N.
Stark-Films, 219 W. Centre St.
Zepp Photo Supply Co., 3044 Greenmount
Hagerstown: R. M. Hays & Bros., 2830 W.
Boston: Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., 38 Brom-
Boston Camera Exchange, 44 Bromfield St.
Cinecraft Co., of New England, 80 Boyl-
Ralph Harris Co., 30 Bromfield St.
Iver Johnson Sporting Goods Co., 1 55 Wash-
Andrew J. Lloyd Co., 300 Washington St.
Pathescope Co. of the N. E., Inc., 438 Stuart
Pinkham & Smith Co., 1 5 Bromfield St.
Stillfilm Sales Co., 40 Stuart St.
Braintree: Alves Photo Shop, 349 Washington
Cambridge: E. M. F. Electrical Supply Co., 430
Lowell: Donaldson’s, 75 Merrimack St.
Lynn: Moehring's, Inc., 490 Washington St.
New Bedford: J. Arnold Wright, 7 S. Sixth St.
Newtonville: Newton Photo Shop, 92 Bower St
Pittsfield: E. C. Kilian, 41 1 North St.
Salem: Pitman Movie Service, 45 Summit Ave.
Springfield: Harvey & Lewis Co., 1503 Main
J. E. Cheney & Co., Inc., 301 Bridge St.
Worcester: Harvey & Lewis Co., 513 Main St.
Detroit: Crowley i Milner & Co.
Clark Cine-Service, Rooms 203-204 Profes-
sional Bldg., 10 Peterboro.
Detroit Camera Shop, 424 Grand River W.
Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., 1235 Wash-
H. C. Film Service, 12191 llene Ave.
J. L. Hudson Co., Dept. 290.
E. B. Meyrowitz, Inc., 1516 Washington
Flint: Gardner Photo Service.
Grand Rapids: Camera Shop Stores, Inc., 56
Photo Service Shop, 44 Monroe Ave.
Jackson: Royal Film Service, 125 Michigan
120 American Cinematographer • July 1933
Lansing: Linn Camera Shop, 109 S. Washing-
Saginaw: Heavenrich Bros. & Co., 301 Genesee.
Duluth: Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., 3 W.
LeRoy: Ivan E. Meyers, Home Movie Service,
215 W. Main St.
Minneapolis: Eastman Kodak Stores, 112-116
So. Fifth St.
Gospeter’s Blue Front, 1006 Nicollet Ave.
National Camera Exchange, 5 South Fifth St.
Owatonna: B. W. Johnson Gift Shop, 130 W.
St. Paul: Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., Kodak
Bldg., 91 E. Sixth St.
H. W. Fisher Photographic Supplies, 381
Kansas City: Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., 916
Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., 1006 Main St.
Hanley’s Photo Shop, 116 E. 10th St.
Plaza Camera Co., 218 Alameda Rd.
St. Louis: Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., 1009
Famous-Barr Co., M. P. Dept. 6th & Olive St.
Geo. D. Fisher & Co., 915 Locust St.
Billings: Midland Drug Co., 23 N. 27th St.
Bozeman: Alexander Art Co.
Lincoln: Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., 1217
Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., 419 S 16th St.
Omaha: J. G. Kretschmer & Co., 1617 Har-
Lebanon: Photocraft Co.
Newport: K. E. Waldron, 1 A Main St.
Atlantic City: Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc.,
Bayonne: Milton Mendelwager, 192 Ave. B.
Cliffside Park: Louis C. Ghiosay, 639 Anderson
East Orange: Edmund J. Farlie Jr., 45 N. 19th
Hawthorne: Hawthorne Home Movie Service,
52 MacFarlan Ave.
Irvington: Wolf Bros., 1340 Springfield Ave.
Jersey City, Levy’s Sport Shop, 149 Monticello
Montclair: Edward Madison Co., 42 Bloomfield
Newark: Anspach Bros., 838 Broad St.
Paterson: Robt. G. Smith, 40 Hamilton St.
Sykes Drug Store, 179 Market St.
Summit: Eastman Bookshop, 380 Springfield
Trenton: Howard E. Thompson, 35 Newkirk
Union City: Heraco Exchange, Inc., 61 1 Ber-
West New York: Rembrandt Studios, Inc.,
526A Bergenline Ave.
Santa Fe: Capital Pharmacy, Inc.
Albany: Albany Photo Supply Co., Inc., 204
Binghamton: A. S. Bump Co., Inc., 180 Wash-
Brooklyn: Geo. J. McFadden, Inc., 202 Flat-
Abraham & Straus, Inc., Fulton & Hoyt Sts.
J. Navilio, 1757 Broadway.
Buffalo: Buffalo Photo Material Co., 37 Ni-
Hauser Bob Studio, 11 West Tupper St.
J. F. Adam's, Inc., 459 Washington St.
Nowak Optical Co.
United Projector & Film Corp., 228 Franklin
Goshen: T. H. Finan.
Haverstraw: E. H. Vandenburgh, 3 Broadway.
Hempstead: Agnew’s, 47 Main St.
Islip, H. L. Terry & Sons.
Ithaca: Henry R. Head, 109 N. Aurora St.
Long Island City: Leonard F. Kleinfield, 4202
New Rochelle: Artist’s Photo Service, 219
New York City: Wm. C. Cullen, 12 Maiden
Adam Archinai Corp., 305 W. 56th St.
Ambercrombie & Fitch, 45th & Madison Ave.
Bloomingdale’s, 59th & Lexington Ave.
J. H. Boozer, 145 E. 60th St.
Columbus Photo Supply Co., 146 Columbus
Abe Cohen’s Exchange, 120 Fulton St.
Davega, Inc., 1 1 1 East 42nd St.
Davega, Inc., Empire State Building.
Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., 356 Madison
Ave. at 45th St.
Fotoshop, Inc., 136 W. 32nd St.
H. & D. Folsom Arms Co., 314 Broadway.
Gall & Lembke, Inc., 7 East 48th St.
Gillette Camera Stores, Inc., 117 Park Ave.
Gimbel Bros., Dept. 575, 33rd St. & Broad-
Joseph P. Hackel, 1919 Chanin Bldg., 122
E. 42nd St.
Harry’s Camera Exchange, 317 W. 50th St.
Hecker’s Camera Store, 1519 Amsterdam
Herbert & Huesgen Co., 18 E. 42nd St.
Lugene, Inc., 600 Madison Ave., between
57th & 58th.
Luma Camera Service, Inc., 302 W. 34th St.
Mogull Bros. Electric Corp’n., 1944 Boston
Newman’s Camera Shop, 1197 Sixth Ave.
New York Camera Exchange, 109 Fulton St.
Pago, Inc., 1095 Sixth Ave.
Pickup & Brown, 368 Lexington Ave.
Rab Sons, 1373 Sixth Ave.
Schoenig & Co., Inc., 8 East 42nd St.
Sibley, Lindsay & Curr Co.
Frank Tanham & Co., Inc., 9 Church St.
Times Building News Stand, Inc., Times
Willoughby’s. 110-112-114 West 32nd St.
Richmond Hill: Josephson Bros., 10902 Ja-
Rochester: Marks & Fuller, Inc., 36 East Ave.
Smith, Surrey, Inc., 129 Clinton Ave., South.
Rome: Fitchard Studio, 133-135 W. Liberty St.
Schenectady: J. T. & D. B. Lyon, 236 State
Syracuse: Geo. F. Lindemer, 443 S. Salina St.
Francis Hendricks Co., Inc., 339 So. Warren
Troy: A. M. Knowlson & Co., 350 Broadway.
Utica: Edwin A. Hahn, 223-225 Columbia St.
Yonkers: W. J. Dolega, 242 Nepperham Ave.
Charlotte: W. I. Van Ness & Co., 213 N.
Akron: Pockrandt Photo Supply Co., 16 N.
Canton: Ralph Young News Agency.
The Camera Shop, 531 Market Ave. N.
Cincinnati: Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., 27
West Fourth St.
Huber Art Co., 124 Seventh St., W.
John L. Huber Camera Shop, 416V2 Main St.
L. M. Prince Co., 108 W. Fourth St.
Cleveland: The Home Movies, Inc., 2025
Dodd Co., 652 Huron Road.
Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., 806 Huron
Road, 1862 E. 6th St., 1915 E. 9th St.,
Union Trust Bldg.
Escar Motion Picture ervice, Inc., 10008
Halle Bros. Co., 1228 Euclid Ave.
Higbee Co., 90 Public Square.
Columbus: Capitol Camera Co., 7 E. Gay St.
Columbus Photo Supply, 62 E. Gay St.
Home Movies Co., 234 S. High St.
Don McAllister Camera Co., 73 E. State St.
Dayton: Dayton Camera Shop, 1 Third St.,
Middletown: Lee R. Chamberlain, care Roy A.
White’s Elec. Shop, 48 S. Broad St.
Portsmouth: V. E. Fowler, 824 Galia St.
Salem: Butcher’s Studio. 166 South Broadway.
Steubenville: Beall & Steele Drug Co., 424
Toedo: Cross Photo Supply Co., 325 Superior
Franklin Print & Eng. Co.. 226-36 Huron St.
Youngstown: Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., 7
A. C. Saunders. 177 Benita Ave.
Zanesville: Zulandt’s Drug Store, Widney, cor.
Seventh 6r Main.
Oklahoma City: H. O. Davis, 522 N. Broadway.
Tulsa: Camera Shoppe. Inc., and the Charles
High Productions, 1213 S. Boulder Ave.
Lakeview: Getty’s Photo Studio, I.O. O.F. Bldg.,
Center & Main Sts.
Marshfield: Mel's News Stand, cor. Broadway
Pendleton: J. T. Snelson, 608 Gardner St.
Portland: Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., 345
Lipman-Wolfe & Co., Kodak Dept., Fifth,
Washington & Alder Sts.
Meier & Frank Co., Kodak Dept., Fifth, Sixth,
Morrison & Alder Sts.
Allentown: M. S. Young & Co., 736-40 Ham-
Easton: Easton Sporting Goods Co., 2nd and
Erie: Kelly Studios, 1026-28 Peach St.
Harrisburg: James Lett Co., 225 N. 2nd St.
Johnstown: Johnstown News Co., 115 Market
Lancaster: Pugh’s Art Shoppe, 33 W. King St.
Langhorne: National Entertainment Service,
360 Bellevue Ave.
Lebanon: Harpel’s, 757-9 Cumberland St.
Philadelphia: Klein & Goodman, 18 South
Camera Shop, 51 N. 52nd St.
G. P. Darrow Co., Inc., 5623-5 Germantown
Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., 1020 Chestnut
Home Movies Studio. 20th & Chestnut Sts.
MacCallum Stores, 1600 Sansom St.
M. & H. Sporting Goods Co., 512 Market St.
Newsreel Laboratory, 1707 Sansom St.
Strawbridge & Clothier, Dept. 201, Market,
Eighth & Filbert Sts.
George W. Tegan, 420 E. Mt. Airy Ave.
John Wanamaker’s Motion Picture Dept.,
No. 1 Broad St.
Williams, Brown & Earle, Inc., 918 Chest-
Pittsburgh: Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., 606
B. K. Elliott & Co., 126 - 6th St.
Joseph Horne Co., Magazine Dept.
Kaufmann Dept. Store, Inc., Dept. 62, Fifth
Reading: W. F. Drehs. 541 Court St.
Scranton: Houser’s, 133 N. Main Ave.
Wallace & Cook, Inc., 2-5 N. Washington
Scranton Home Movies Library, 316 N.
Shamokin: Jones Hardware Co., 115 E. Inde-
Wilkes Barre: Ralph DeWitt, 2 South River
Windber: New Arts Feature, 508 - 15th St.
York: Sweigart’s Photo Service Shop, 278 W.
Pawtucket: Thomas N. Simpson, Broadway &
Providence: E. P. Anthony, Inc., 178 Angell St.
Starkweather & Williams, Inc., 47 Exchange
Westcott, Slade & Balcom Co., 95-99 Empire
Jackson: Southern Pictures Corp.
Knoxville: Jim Thompson Co., 415 W. Church
Memphis: Memphis Photo Supply Co., 122
Nashville: Geo. C. Dury Co., 420 Union St.
Abilene: W. C. Cosby, 249 Pine St
Dallas: Jamieson Film Laboratories, 2212 Live
E. G. Marlow Co., 1610 Main St.
Fort Worth: The Camera Shop, Inc., 113 W.
Chas. G. Lord Optical Co., 704 Main St.
Houston: Star Elec. & Eng. Co., Inc., 613
San Antonio: Fox Co., 209 Alamo Plaza.
Salt Lake City: Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc.,
3 1 5 S. Main St.
Norfolk: G. L. Hall Optical Co., 257 Granbv St.
Richmond: G. L. Hall Optical Co., 418 E.
Burlington: G. W. La Pierre’s, 71 Church St.
Bellingham: Clyde Banks, 119 W. Holly St.
Continued on Page 122
July 1933 • American Cinematographer 121
When to Use Special Effects
— And How
Continued from Page 100
piece, shooting one frame at a time, and
when the puzzle is all together, getting
eight or ten frames of it completed. If
you’ve done it properly, you’ll have your
jig-saw puzzle assembling itself as the
previous shot fades slowly out. (It might
be a good idea to have the first twenty or
thirty frames of the puzzle fade in quick-
ly.) Now, when this second roll has
been processed, splice it onto the scene
from which your puzzle-enlargement was
made, taking pains to make a very good
splice — and when you project the film
you’ll see the first shot fade out while
the second laps quickly in as a jig-saw
puzzle assembling itself; when the as-
sembly is complete, the action will go
on with only a very small jump The
trick of this, of course, is to co-ordinate
your fade-out with the footage required
for assembling the puzzle: this may re-
quire you to assemble the puzzle quick-
ly, bringing in two or three pieces (or
even more) in every frame. Properly
done, however, it’s the sort of a shot
that will make your friends rub their
eyes and ask, “How in Sam Hill did you
do that?” Incidentally, you can use this
same general idea for a lot of trick tran-
sitions such as whirls, page-turning,
zooms, and the like. Try it!
That disposes of the “How” of the
subject, but what about the “When” and
“Why?” Well, if you want a slow tran-
sition between one scene and the next
— for instance, where the element of
time or distance between the two is con-
siderable — use a simple fade-out fol-
lowed by* a fade-in. If, on the other
hand, you want a smooth, quicker tran-
sition between two rather closely related
scenes, locations or ideas, use a lap-dis-
solve. If you want a quick, abrupt trrn-
sition, simply cut from one to the other.
Wipes, trick-transitions, and the like,
should be treated as a cook treats pun-
gent spices: use them sparingly, and
only for a pronounced effect. A wipe,
for instance, is midway between a lap
and a cut — smooth, but noticeable. To
sum the matter up, then, where you want
your transitions noticeable, use either the
slow fadeout-plus-fadein, the abrupt cut,
or an eye-arresting wipe or trick; where
you want them unobtrusive, use a lap-
Treatise on Visual Fatigue
• The Amusement Age Publishing Com-
pany have issued a booklet titled “The
Visual Fatigue of Motion Pictures.” This
is a compilation of opinions of various
people in the industry and of other data
published on this widely discussed sub-
ject. The booklet also delves into other
phases of theatre audiences in the discus-
sion of ventilation, seating posture, etc.
will be judged by the American Society of
Cinematographers. . . . Each entrant will be
given a personal review of his picture by a
member of the Society.
There will be a dozen or more classifica-
tions under which the pictures will be
Those given recognition for first place in
the various classifications will be given a
Cold Medallion. The greatest honor any
Amateur Can Achieve.
Pictures must be in the offices of the
American Cinematographer not later than
October 3 1 st.
One of the 1932 Prize Winners is now
being shown at the Century of Progress,
Chicago. It is acknowledged by school au-
thorities as one of the outstanding subjects
for Primary Grades and is being placed in
Write for Full Details to
6331 Hollywood Blvd.,
122 American Cinematographer 0 July 1933
Directory of Dealers
Continued from Page 120
Pullman: Craves Studio.
Seattle: Anderson Supply Co., 1 1 1 Cherry St.
Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., 1415 - 4th Ave.
Lowman & Hanford Co., 1514 - 3rd Ave.
Spokane: John W. Graham & Co., Dept. C, 707
Joyner Drug Co., Howard & Riverside Ave.
Tacoma: Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., 910
VValla Walla: Book Nook Drug & Stationery
Wheeling: Twelfth St. Garage, 81 - 12th St.
Fond du Lac: Huber Bros., 36 S. Main St.
La Crosse: Moen Photo Service, 313 Main St.
Madison: Photoart House, 212 State St.
Milwaukee: Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., 737
N. Milwaukee St.
Boston Store, Wisconsin Ave. & 4th St.
W. E. Brown, 327 W. National Ave.
Cimbel Bros., E. Wisconsin & N. Planking-
Roa Meuer, The, 226 West Wells St.
Phillips: Jakoubek's’, 132 N. Lake Ave.
Racine: Photo-Crafts Shop, 526 College Ave.
Melbourne: McGills Agency, 179-218 Eliza-
Canton: International Book Co., 269 North
Wing Hon Road.
London: J. H. Dallmeyer, Ltd., 31 Mortimer
St. and Oxford St W. I.
Honolulu: Eastman Kodak Stores, 1059 Fort
Bombay: Continental Photo Stores, 255 Hornby
P. C. Eranee Sons, Albert Bldgs., Hornby
Calcutta: Photographic Stores & Agency Co.,
154 Dhuramtolla St.
M. L. Shaw, 5/1 Dhuramtolla St.
Lucknow: Lucknow Commercial Co., 25 Amina-
American Photo Supply Co. S.A., Av. F.l,
Madero, 43, Mexico, D.F.
Warsaw: Polska Agencia Prasy Filmowe)
Buenos Aires: Argentine Rep., Casa America
Ltda. S. A. Avenda de Mavo 959.
What is coming to be dubbed “Photo-
Row” in Hollywood is the four square
blocks which include Hollywood Blvd.,
Sunset Blvd., Cahuenga Blvd. and Vine
This section within the next month
will house six Photographic dealers. The
Hollywood Camera Exchange, the pioneer
in this section is located on Cahuenga
and Selma. Within the last month Edu-
cational Projecto-Film Company opened
new quarters almost directly across the
street from the Camera Exchange. Faxon
Dean will open his establishment some-
time this month in the next block.
On Sunset, Gilbert Morgan conducts
the Morgan Camera Shop. On Vine St.
Park Rees is putting the finishing touches
to his new store and completing the circle
is the Hollywood Citizen store on Holly-
( lassiiic <1 Aclv crl i*i us*
Rates: Four cents a word. Minimum charge,
one dollar per insertion.
FOR RENT — MISCELLANEOUS
FOR RENT — Mitchell Motor, 25 M.M. Lenses,
1000 feet Mitchell Magazines, Baby Tripod.
J. R. Lockwood, Glendale. Phone Douglas
FOR RENT — Mitchell high speed gear box
complete. Pliny Horne, 1318 N. Stanley.
HO-7682 or HO-9431.
• You want The Cinematographic Annual
FOR SALE OR RENT
FOR SALE OR RENT — Mitchell and Bell &
Howell silenced cameras, follow focus Pan
lenses, free head, corrected new aperture.
Akeley, DeBrie, Pathe, Universal, Prevost,
Willart, DeVry, Eyemo, Sept, Leica. Motors,
Printers, lighting equipment. Also every
variety of 16mm and still cameras and
projectors. Everything photographic bought,
so|d, rented and repaired. Send for our
bargain catalogue. Open 8 A.M. to 10 P.M.
Hollywood Camera Exchange, 1 600 Cahuenga
Blvd. Phone: HO-3651 ; Cable address
FOR RENT — CAMERAS
FOR RENT — Thoroughly silenced Mitchell cam-
eras, Pan Astro lenses, follow focus. J. R.
Lockwood, Glendale. Douglas 3361 -W.
FOR RENT — Mitchell high speed camera with
latest 40, 50 and 75 mm. Pan-Astro lenses.
1000 ft. magazines; loose head, tripod.
Pliny Horne, 1318 N. Stanley. HO-7682 or
FOR SALE — CAMERAS
AKELEY CAMERA- — Practically new, rebuilt for
color; 40mm. and 50mm. lenses; 10 maga-
zines; cases; tripod, etc. Cost $5,000 — will
se|| for $1,250. Box R.W.S. care American
FOR SALE — 35 MM. Pathe Studio Camera, 1
f:3.5 Krauss Tessar; carrying case; three
magazines, $100. Universal Tripod with
carrying-case, $75. Box S, American Cinema-
tographer, 1222 Guaranty Bldg., Hollywood.
FOR SALE — Bell & Howell adapter for Mitchell
Tripod head, 40-50-75-M.M. Astro lenses
mounted and unmounted, Mitchell tripod
head, Mitchell matte box. J. R. Lockwood,
523 N. Orange St., Glendale, Calif. Doug-
las 3361 -W.
FOR SALE — Bell & Howell Standard Aperture
Camera with Mitchell standard pan and tilt
tripod 4 — 400 ft. magazines; 2 Raytar F
2.3; 2" Carl Zeiss F 2.7 and 3" Goerz Hypar
F 2.7 lenses; Lens Shade and Filter Holder.
Veeder counter. Address Box E 145, Amer-
ican Cinematographer, 6331 Hollywood
Blvd., Hollywood, Calif.
FOR SALE— Akeley Camera No. 256 with case,
tripod and case, canoe mount, 5 extra maga-
zines, 3 pair matched Zeiss lenses, 3 tele-
photo lenses, slow motion attachment, iris,
filters, masks, accessory case and trunk.
New condition — used for only about 800
feet of film. List price, $3400. Sale price
$1500. Gillette Camera Stores, Inc., 117
Park Ave., New York City.
You want The Cinematographic Annual •
FOR SALE — MISCELLANEOUS
FOR SALE— lea “Monopol” semi-portable 35
MM. projector, complete with carrying-cases
and extra carbons. Box S, care American
FOR SALE — Special complete 16 mm. editor
with geared rewinds, magnifier and splicer,
$4.50 plus postage. Money refunded if not
satisfactory. FOTOSHOP, 136 West 32nd
St., New York City.
FOR SALE — Cine Kodak Model A, new condi-
tion, electric motor, $35.00; also 3A Kodak
Special, excellent condition, $20.00. Write
for details. W. L. McAlexander, 615 South
85th Street, Birmingham, Alabama.
544 pages of valuable information •
SHOTGUNS, Target Pistols, Rifles and other
good firearms may be traded in at liberal
allowances on any photographic equipment,
movie or still, including Bell & Howell Eye-
mos and Filmos, Eastman, Victor, Leitz,
Zeiss, Stewart Warner and other leading
makes. NATIONAL CAMERA EXCHANGE,
5 South 5th St., Minneapolis, Minn.
WANTED — Sept Camera must be reasonable.
Address Box VI 50 American Cinematog-
rapher, 6331 Hollywood Blvd., Hollywood,
WANTED — DeVry 35mm. Hand-camera, double-
claw movement. Must be cheap and in
good condition. Box G, care American
WANTED — Motor adapter. J. R. Lockwood,
Glendale. Douglas 3361 -W.
WANTED — Mitchell High Speed Silent Camera,
box only, without equipment. Must be
cheap for cash. Box 140, American Cinema-
SITUATION WANTED — Motion Picture En-
gineer, employed, desires executive position,
preferably sales-engineering. Finest train-
ing. Experienced cinematographer. In-
structor cinematography, special representa-
tive. Excellent references. Box 26, Amer-
WANTED — “Leica" enlarger; must be in good
condition and cheap. Box H.R., care Ameri-
An Important Warning
• The Board of Governors of the Ameri-
can Society of Cinematographers re-
cently received the following communi-
cation from an American cameraman
working in South America:
“I consider it my duty to warn all
cinematographers of the following: There
will be quite a few offers, full of glow-
ing promises, from South American
would-be producers (especially in the Ar-
gentine) to cinematographers. I must
warn my fellow-cinematographers to be
very careful in even considering such of-
fers, for down here not even contracts
mean anything. The only thing to do is
to have the contract endorsed by some
good American bank, and then to be sure
that one’s passage both ways is paid in
advance. ... If you don’t take these pre-
cautions, well, it is just too bad. This
is the advice of an American cinematog-
rapher who leaped before he looked —
and paid his way through.
“The local market is so limited that
the production-cost of a picture “Made
in Argentine” is seldom more than what
would be paid the First Cameraman alone
in Hollywood for making one film.
NEW YORK • CHICACO • HOLLYWOOD
I NSURE THE MAXIMUM OF EFFICIENCY
Keep Your Camera Equipment
in MAXIMUM Condition
Our staff of train
T o-gether with a com-
plete supply of parts
. . . . enables us to
render prompt and
eff icient service on
all repair work.
Mitchell Camera Corporation
Cable Address “MITCAMO”
665 N. ROBERTSON BOULEVARD
WEST HOLLYWOOD. CALIF.
Phone OXford 1051